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General officer

General officer

A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.[1]

The term general is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank. It originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général. The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction.

Today, the title of general is known in some countries as a four-star rank. However, different countries use different systems of stars or other insignia for senior ranks. It has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank currently in use in a number of armies, air forces and marine organizations.

NaviesArmiesAir forces
Admiral of the fleetField marshalGeneral of the armyMarshal of the air force
AdmiralGeneralAir chief marshal
Vice admiralLieutenant generalAir marshal
Rear admiralMajor generalAir vice-marshal
CommodoreBrigadier brigadier generalAir commodore
CaptainColonelGroup captain
CommanderLieutenant colonelWing commander
Lieutenant commanderMajorcommandantSquadron leader
LieutenantCaptainFlight lieutenant
Lieutenant junior gradesub-lieutenantLieutenant first lieutenantFlying officer
EnsignmidshipmanSecond lieutenantPilot officer
Officer cadetOfficer cadetFlight cadet
Warrant officerchief petty officerWarrant officer sergeant majorWarrant officer
Petty officerSergeantFlight sergeant
Leading seamanCorporalbombardierCorporal

General officer ranks

The various grades of general officer are at the top of the military rank structure.

Lower-ranking officers in land-centric military forces are typically known as field officers or field-grade officers, and below them are company-grade officers.

Common systems

There are two common systems of general ranks used worldwide.

In addition, there is a third system, the Arab system of ranks, which is used throughout the Middle East and North Africa but is not used elsewhere in the world.

Variations of one form, the old European system, were once used throughout Europe.

It is used in the United Kingdom (although it did not originate there), from which it eventually spread to the Commonwealth and the United States of America. The general officer ranks are named by prefixing "general", as an adjective, with field officer ranks, although in some countries the highest general officers are titled field marshal, marshal, or captain general.

The other is derived from the French Revolution, where generals' ranks are named according to the unit they (theoretically) command.

Old European system

Field marshalorgeneral field marshal
Colonel general
General orcaptain general
Lieutenant general
Sergeant major generalor major general
Brigadieror brigadier general

The system used either a brigadier general or a colonel general rank (i.e. exclude one of the italicised ranks).

The rank of field marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank, while in other countries it was used as a divisional or brigade rank. Many countries (notably pre-revolutionary France and eventually much of Latin America) actually used two brigade command ranks, which is why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia. Mexico and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks.

In some nations (particularly in the Commonwealth since the 1920s), the equivalent to brigadier general is brigadier, which is not always considered by these armies to be a general officer rank, although it is always treated as equivalent to the rank of brigadier general for comparative purposes.

As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major; confusion often arises because a lieutenant is outranked by a major.

Originally the serjeant major was, exclusively, the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general and lieutenant general.

The distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer.

Serjeant was eventually dropped from both rank titles, creating the modern rank titles.

Serjeant major (later spelled sergeant major) as a senior rank of non-commissioned officer was a later creation.

French (Revolutionary) system

Army general
Corps general
Divisional general
Brigade general

Arab system

The armies of Arab countries use traditional Arabic titles.

These were formalized in their current system to replace the Turkish system that was formerly in use in the Arab world and the Turco-Egyptian ranks in Egypt.

مشيرmushīrCounsellorcompareCounsellor of State,State Counselloretc.compare etymology"mushir"withshura"
فريقأولfarīq awwalFirst generalequivalent to Commonwealth"full" general
فريقfarīqGeneralequivalent tolieutenant generalorcorps general
لواءliwāʾ(more loosely "flag officer" or "banner")
عميدʿamīdColonel(not to be confused withaqīd, the equivalent rank to a Commonwealth colonel)compareetymologywith"ʿamood"("column");etymologically, translates asequivalent tobrigadier/brigade general

Other variations

Other nomenclatures for general officers include the titles and ranks:

  • Adjutant general

  • Commandant-general

  • Inspector general

  • General-in-chief

  • General of the Army (which is distinct from the title army general)

  • General of the Air Force (USAF only)

  • General of the Armies of the United States (of America), a title created for General John J. Pershing, and subsequently granted posthumously to George Washington

  • Generaladmiral ("general admiral") (German Navy)

  • Air general and aviation general (Chilean Air Force; roughly equivalent to air chief marshal and air vice-marshal)

  • Wing general and group general (Mexican Air Force; roughly equivalent to air commodore and acting air commodore)

  • General-potpukovnik ("lieutenant colonel general", a Serb/Slovenian/Macedonian rank immediately inferior to colonel general, and roughly equivalent to Commonwealth/US major general)

  • Director general (a common administrative term sometimes used as an appointment in military services)

  • Director general of national defence (most senior rank in the Mexican Armed Forces)

  • Controller general (general officer rank in the French National Police)

  • Prefect general (the most senior rank of the Argentine Naval Prefecture)

  • Master-General of the Ordnance – very senior British military position.

  • Police Director General (most senior rank of the Philippine National Police).

  • Commissioner (highest rank of the Bureau of Immigration)

  • Admiral (highest rank of the Philippine Coast Guard & Philippine Navy)

In addition to militarily educated generals, there are also generals in medicine and engineering.

The rank of the most senior chaplain, (chaplain general), is also usually considered to be a general officer rank.

Specific rank of general

In the old European system, a general, without prefix or suffix (and sometimes referred to informally as a "full general"), is usually the most senior type of general, above lieutenant general and directly below field marshal as a four-star rank (NATO OF-9). Usually it is the most senior peacetime rank, with more senior ranks (for example, field marshal, marshal of the air force, fleet admiral) being used only in wartime or as honorary titles.

In some armies, however, the rank of captain general, general of the army, army general or colonel general occupied or occupies this position. Depending on circumstances and the army in question, these ranks may be considered to be equivalent to a "full" general or to a field marshal.

The rank of general came about as a "captain-general", the captain of an army in general (i.e., the whole army).

The rank of captain-general began appearing around the time of the organisation of professional armies in the 17th century.

In most countries "captain-general" contracted to just "general".

General ranks by country

The following articles deal with the rank of general, or its equivalent, as it is or was employed in the militaries of those countries:

  • General (Australia)

  • General (Brazil)

  • General (Canada)

  • Shang Jiang

  • Kindral

  • Général

  • General (Germany) SS-Oberst-Gruppenführer (Nazi Germany, SS four-star rank, equal to a ) Generaloberst der Ordnungspolizei (Nazi Germany, police four-star rank) Armeegeneral (East Germany, four-star rank)

  • Στρατηγός (Strategos

  • Aluf

  • Generale

  • Rikugun-Taishō (IJA), Rikushō serve as chief of staff and Kūshō serve as chief of staff (JSDF, four-star rank) (Japan)

  • Daejang

  • General (Mexico)

  • Heneral

  • Generał

  • General of the army (Russian: генерал армии), Russia since 1992 General (генерал) - Imperial Russian Army until 1917 General of the army (генерал армии), Soviet Union until 1992

  • General (Sri Lanka)

  • General (Sweden)

  • General (Switzerland)

  • General (United Kingdom)

  • General (United States)

  • Đại tướng

  • General (Yugoslav People's Army)

  • General (Zimbabwe)

Army generals' insignia

  • Setar Jenral (Afghan National Army)

  • Teniente General (Argentine Army)

  • General (Australian Army)

  • General (Bangladesh Army)

  • General de Exército (Brazilian Army)

  • Генерал(Bulgarian Army)

  • General (Canadian Army)

  • General de Ejército (Chilean Army)

  • 一級上將(Yi Ji Shang Jiang) (Republic of China Army)

  • 上将(Shang Jiang) (People's Liberation Army)

  • General (Colombian Army)

  • General de Ejército (Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces)

  • Comandante de la Revolución (Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces)

  • Armádní Generál (Army of the Czech Republic)

  • General (Royal Danish Army)

  • General (Land Forces of DR Congo)

  • General de Ejercito (Ecuadorian Army)

  • Kindral (Estonian Land Forces)

  • Kenraali (Finnish Army)

  • Général (French Army)

  • General (Armed Forces of Gabon)

  • არმიის გენერალი (Georgian Defense Forces)

  • General (German Army)

  • General (Guyana Defence Force)

  • Strategos (Hellenic Army)

  • General (Indian Army)

  • Jenderal (Indonesian Army)

  • Arteshbod, ارتشبد‎ (Iranian Army)

  • Generale (Italian Army)

  • 幕僚長たる陸将(Rikushō serve as chief of staff)[2](Japan Ground Self-Defense Force)

  • Taejang (대장) (Korean People's Army)

  • Daejang (대장) (Republic of Korea Army)

  • генерал (Army of the Republic of North Macedonia)

  • Jeneral (Malaysian Army)

  • General (Mexican Army)

  • Général (Moroccan Army)

  • General (Namibian Army)

  • Generaal (Royal Netherlands Army)

  • General (Norwegian Army)

  • General (Pakistan Army)

  • Heneral (Philippine Army)

  • Generał (Polish Army)

  • General (Portuguese Army)

  • General (Romanian Land Forces)

  • General (Russian Ground Forces)

  • General (Rwandan Defence Forces)

  • Генерал (Serbian Army)

  • General (South African Army)

  • General de Ejército (Spanish Army)

  • General (Sri Lanka Army)

  • General (Swedish Army)

  • General (Swiss Land Forces)

  • عماد أول (Syrian Arab Army)

  • พลเอก – Phon Ek (Royal Thai Army)

  • Orgeneral (Turkish Land Forces)

  • Orgeneral (Chief of Staff) (Turkish Land Forces)

  • Colonel General (Ukrainian Ground Forces)

  • General (UK (British) Army)

  • General (US Army)

  • Armiya Generali (Uzbekistan Ground Forces)

  • Đại tướng (People's Army of Vietnam)

  • farīq awwal (Yemeni Army)

  • General (Zimbabwe National Army)

Air force generals' insignia

  • Général / Generaal (Belgian Air Component)

  • Tenente Brigadeiro (Brazilian Air Force)

  • General del Aire Chilean Air Force

  • General (Colombian Air Force)

  • General (Royal Danish Air Force)

  • Kindral (Õhuvägi – Estonian Air Force)

  • Général d´armée aérienne French Air Force

  • არმიის გენერალი (Georgian Air Force)

  • General (German Air Force)

  • Aluf (אלוף‎) (Israeli Air Force)

  • Generale (Italian Air Force)

  • Kūshō [2](Japan Air Self-Defense Force)

  • Taejang (대장) (Korean People's Army Air Force (North Korea))

  • Daejang (대장) (Republic of Korea Air Force (South Korea))

  • General (Mexican Air Force)

  • Général (Royal Moroccan Air Force)

  • Generaal (Royal Netherlands Air Force)

  • General Royal Norwegian Air Force

  • Heneral (Philippine Air Force

  • Generał (Polish Air Force)

  • General (Portuguese Air Force)

  • General (Romanian Air Force)

  • General (Russian Air Force)

  • Генерал (Serbian Air Force)

  • General (South African Air Force)

  • General del Aire (Spanish Air Force)

  • General (Swedish Air Force)

  • Orgeneral (Turkish Air Force)

  • Air Chief Marshal (UK Royal Air Force)

  • General (US Air Force)

  • General (Swedish Amphibious Corps)

  • General (UK Royal Marines)

  • General (US Marine Corps)

  • Jenderal (Indonesian Marine Corps)

Generals' insignia of disbanded armies

  • Generaloberst (Heer)

  • SS-Oberst-Gruppenführer

  • Armeegeneral (National People's Army (GDR))

  • General (Manchukuo Imperial Army)

  • Heneral**General (Philippine Revolutionary Army)

  • Army general (Army of the Soviet Union)

  • Đại Tướng, 1967–1975 (Army of the Republic of Vietnam)

Some countries (such as the United States) use the general officer ranks for both the army and the air force, as well as their marine corps; other nations only use the general officer ranks for the army, while in the air force they use air officers as the equivalent of general officers. They use the air force rank of air chief marshal as the equivalent of the specific army rank of general. This latter group includes the British Royal Air Force and many current and former Commonwealth air forces—e.g. Royal Australian Air Force, Indian Air Force, Royal New Zealand Air Force, Nigerian Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, etc.

In most navies, flag officers are the equivalent of general officers, and the naval rank of admiral is equivalent to the specific army rank of general. A noteworthy historical exception was the Cromwellian naval rank "general at sea". In recent years in the American service there is a tendency to use flag officer and flag rank to refer to generals and admirals of the services collectively.

See also

  • General officers in the United States

  • List of comparative military ranks

  • List of Roman generals

  • General officer commanding

  • Général

  • Generalissimo

  • Shōgun


Citation Linkwww.merriam-webster.comIn the United States, General Officers authorized to display a flag showing their rank are also called "flag officers". Refer: "Flag officer – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster ..." Cite journal requires |journal= (help). In other nations the term "flag officer" usually applies to admirals.
Sep 30, 2019, 4:47 PM
Citation Linkopenlibrary.orgChief of Joint Staff Japan Self-Defense Forces and Chief of Staff Japan Ground Self-Defense Force.
Sep 30, 2019, 4:47 PM
Citation Linkwww.generals.dkGenerals of World War II
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Citation Linkschema-root.orgSchema-root.org: US Generals
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Citation Linkwww.marines.milMarines.mil: General Officer Biographies
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Citation Linkwww.toptenz.netBios & Information on Generals of Western History
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Citation Linken.wikipedia.orgThe original version of this page is from Wikipedia, you can edit the page right here on Everipedia.Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.Additional terms may apply.See everipedia.org/everipedia-termsfor further details.Images/media credited individually (click the icon for details).
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