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World Wide Fund for Nature

World Wide Fund for Nature

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.[5] It was formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States.[5]

WWF is the world's largest conservation organization with over five million supporters worldwide, working in more than 100 countries, supporting around 1,300 conservation and environmental projects.[6] They have invested over $1 billion in more than 12,000 conservation initiatives since 1995.[7] WWF is a foundation with 55% of funding from individuals and bequests, 19% from government sources (such as the World Bank, DFID, USAID) and 8% from corporations in 2014.[8][9]

WWF aims to "stop the degradation of the planet's natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature."[10] The Living Planet Report is published every two years by WWF since 1998; it is based on a Living Planet Index and ecological footprint calculation.[5] In addition, WWF has launched several notable worldwide campaigns including Earth Hour and Debt-for-Nature Swap, and its current work is organized around these six areas: food, climate, freshwater, wildlife, forests, and oceans.[5][7]

WWF has received criticism for its alleged corporate ties.[11][12] It has also been accused of supporting paramilitary groups tasked with stopping poaching who are responsible for numerous human rights abuses.[13]

World Wildlife Fund
Formation29 April 1961 (as World Wildlife Fund)
TypeCharitable trust
HeadquartersRue Mauverny,Gland,Vaud,Switzerland
Pavan Sukhdev[3]
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Marco Lambertini
654 million (2013)


Precursor: the Conservation Foundation

The Conservation Foundation, a precursor to WWF, was founded in 1948 by Fairfield Osborn as an affiliate of the New York Zoological Society (today known as the Wildlife Conservation Society) with an aim of protecting the world's natural resources. The advisory council included leading scientists such as Charles Sutherland Elton, G. Evelyn Hutchinson, Aldo Leopold, Carl Sauer, and Paul Sears.[14] It supported much of the scientific work cited by Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, including that of John L. George, Roger Hale, Robert Rudd, and George Woodwell.

Founding: Morges Manifesto

The idea for a fund on behalf of endangered animals was officially proposed by Victor Stolan to Sir Julian Huxley in response to articles he published in the British newspaper The Observer. This proposal led Huxley to put Stolan in contact with Max Nicholson, a person who had had thirty years experience of linking progressive intellectuals with big business interests through the Political and Economic Planning think tank.[1][15][16] Nicholson thought up the name of the organization. WWF was conceived on 29 April 1961, under the name of World Wildlife Fund, and its first office was opened on 11 September that same year in Morges, Switzerland.

The WWF was conceived to act as a funding institution for existing conservation groups such as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and The Conservation Foundation.[5] Godfrey A. Rockefeller also played an important role in its creation, assembling the first staff.[2] Its establishment was marked with the signing of the "Morges Manifesto", the founding document that sets out the fund's commitment to assisting worthy organizations struggling to save the world's wildlife:[18]

They need above all money, to carry out mercy missions and to meet conservation emergencies by buying land where wildlife treasures are threatened, and in many other ways.

Money, for example, to pay guardians of wildlife refuges....

Money for education and propaganda among those who would care and help if only they understood.

Money to send out experts to danger spots and to train more local wardens and helpers in Africa and elsewhere.

Money to maintain a sort of 'war room' at the international headquarters of conservation, showing where the danger spots are and making it possible to ensure that their needs are met before it is too late.— Morges Manifesto

Dutch Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld helped found the World Wildlife Fund, becoming its first President in 1961. In 1963, the Foundation held a conference and published a major report warning of anthropogenic global warming, written by Noel Eichhorn based on the work of Frank Fraser Darling (then foundation vice president), Edward Deevey, Erik Eriksson, Charles Keeling, Gilbert Plass, Lionel Walford, and William Garnett.[19]

In 1970, along with Duke of Edinburgh and a few associates, Prince Bernhard established the WWF's financial endowment The 1001: A Nature Trust to handle the WWF's administration and fund-raising. 1001 members each contributed $10,000 to the trust.[20] Prince Bernhard resigned his post after being involved in the Lockheed Bribery Scandal.[21]

Recent development

A WWF hot air balloon in Mexico (2013).

A WWF hot air balloon in Mexico (2013).

The WWF has set up offices and operations around the world.

It originally worked by fundraising and providing grants to existing non-governmental organizations with an initial focus on the protection of endangered species. As more resources became available, its operations expanded into other areas such as the preservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of natural resources, the reduction of pollution, and climate change. The organization also began to run its own conservation projects and campaigns.

In 1986, the organization changed its name to World Wide Fund for Nature, while retaining the WWF initials. However, it continued at that time to operate under the original name in the United States and Canada.[22]

1986 was the 25th anniversary of WWF's foundation, an event marked by a gathering in Assisi, Italy to which the organization's International President HRH Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, invited religious authorities representing Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism.

These leaders produced The Assisi Declarations, theological statements showing the spiritual relationship between their followers and nature that triggered a growth in the engagement of those religions with conservation around the world.[22]

In the 1990s, WWF revised its mission statement to:

Stop the degradation of the planet's natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by: conserving the world's biological diversity; ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable; [and] promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption.

WWF scientists and many others identified 238 ecoregions that represent the world's most biologically outstanding terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats, based on a worldwide biodiversity analysis which the organization says was the first of its kind.[23] In the early 2000s (decade), its work was focused on a subset of these ecoregions, in the areas of forest, freshwater and marine habitat conservation, endangered species conservation, climate change, and the elimination of the most toxic chemicals.

We shan't save all we should like to, but we shall save a great deal more than if we had never tried.— Sir Peter Scott[20]

In 1990, the Conservation Foundation was completely merged into WWF, after becoming an affiliate of WWF-US in 1985 when it became a distinct legal entity but with the same staff and board.[5] The organization now known as the Conservation Foundation in the United States is the former Forest Foundation of DuPage County.[5][24] In 1996, the organization obtained general consultative status from UNESCO.

Panda symbol

The giant panda has become the symbol of WWF.

The giant panda has become the symbol of WWF.

WWF's giant panda logo originated from a panda named Chi Chi that had been transferred from Beijing Zoo to London Zoo in 1958, three years before WWF became established. Being famous as the only panda residing in the Western world at that time, her uniquely recognisable physical features and status as an endangered species were seen as ideal to serve the organization's need for a strong recognisable symbol that would overcome all language barriers.[1] The organization also needed an animal that would have an impact in black and white printing. The logo was then designed by Sir Peter Scott from preliminary sketches by Gerald Watterson, a Scottish naturalist.[1][27]

The logo was slightly simplified and made more geometric in 1978, and was revised significantly again in 1986, at the time that the organization changed its name, with the new version featuring solid black shapes for eyes.[28] In 2000 a change was made to the font used for the initials "WWF" in the logo.[29]

Organization and operation


Policies of the WWF are made by board members elected for three-year terms.

An Executive Team guides and develops WWF's strategy.

There is also a National Council which stands as an advisory group to the board and a team of scientists and experts in conservation who research for WWF.

National and international law plays an important role in determining how habitats and resources are managed and used.

Laws and regulations become one of the organization's global priorities.

The WWF has been opposed to the extraction of oil from the Canadian tar sands and has campaigned on this matter. Between 2008 and 2010 the WWF worked with The Co-operative Group, the UK's largest consumer co-operative to publish reports which concluded that: (1) exploiting the Canadian tar sands to their full potential would be sufficient to bring about what they described as 'runaway climate change;[30] (2) carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology cannot be used to reduce the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere to a level comparable to that of other methods of oil extraction;[31] (3) the $379 billion which is expected to be spent extracting oil from tar sands could be better spent on research and development in renewable energy technology;[32] and (4) the expansion of tar sands extraction poses a serious threat to the caribou in Alberta.[33]

The organization convinces and helps governments and other political bodies to adopt, enforce, strengthen and/or change policies, guidelines and laws that affect biodiversity and natural resource use.

It also ensures government consent and/or keeps their commitment to international instruments relating to the protection of biodiversity and natural resources.[34][35]

In 2012, David Nussbaum, Chief Executive of WWF-UK, spoke out against the way shale gas is used in the UK, saying: "... the Government must reaffirm its commitment to tackling climate change and prioritise renewables and energy efficiency."[36]


WWF's strategy for achieving its mission specifically concentrates on restoring populations of 36 species (species or species groups that are important for their ecosystem or to people, including elephants, tunas, whales, dolphins and porpoises), and ecological footprint in 6 areas (carbon emissions, cropland, grazing land, fishing, forestry and water).

The organization also works on a number of global issues driving biodiversity loss and unsustainable use of natural resources, including finance, business practices, laws, and consumption choices. Local offices also work on national or regional issues.[37]

WWF works with a large number of different groups to achieve its goals, including other NGOs, governments, business, investment banks, scientists, fishermen, farmers and local communities.

It also undertakes public campaigns to influence decision makers, and seeks to educate people on how to live in a more environmentally friendly manner.

It urges people to donate funds to protect the environment.

The donors can also choose to receive gifts in return.

List of presidents

Yolanda Kakabadse, WWF president from 2010 to 2017

Yolanda Kakabadse, WWF president from 2010 to 2017

1961–1976Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld
1976–1981John Hugo Loudon
1981–1996Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
1996–1999Syed Babar Ali
2000–2000Ruud Lubbers
2000–2001Sara Morrison
2001–2010Chief Emeka Anyaoku
2010–2017Yolanda Kakabadse
2018–presentPavan Sukhdev

Notable initiatives and programs


  • Debt-for-Nature Swap

  • Earth Hour

  • Healthy Grown

  • Marine Stewardship Council

Global initiatives

Since 2008, through its Global Programme Framework (GPF), WWF has said it is concentrating its efforts on 13 global initiatives:[39]

  • Amazon

  • Arctic

  • China for a Global Shift

  • Climate and Energy

  • Coastal East Africa People's Climate March 2017

  • Coral Triangle

  • Forest and Climate

  • Green Heart of Africa

  • Heart of Borneo

  • Living Himalayas

  • Market Transformation

  • Smart Fishing

  • Tigers[40]


WWF publishes the Living Planet Index in collaboration with the Zoological Society of London. Along with ecological footprint calculations, the Index is used to produce a bi-yearly Living Planet Report giving an overview of the impact of human activity on the world.[41] In 2019, WWF and Knorr jointly published the Future 50 Foods report identifying "50 Foods for Healthier People and a Healthier Planet".[42]

The organization also regularly publishes reports, fact sheets and other documents on issues related to its work, to raise awareness and provide information to policy and decision makers.[43]


  • No One's Gonna Change Our World was a charity album released in 1969, for the benefit of the WWF.[44]

  • Peter Rose and Anne Conlon are music theatre writers, well known for their environmental musicals for children, who were commissioned by WWF-UK to write several environmental musicals as part of an education plan.[45] Some were narrated by David Attenborough, and broadcast on television in numerous countries.

  • The British pop group S Club 7 were ambassadors for WWF-UK during their time together as a band (1999-2003).[46] Each of the members sponsored an endangered animal, and in 2000, traveled to the various locations around the world of their chosen animals for a seven-part BBC documentary series entitled S Club 7 Go Wild

  • Environmentally Sound: A Select Anthology of Songs Inspired by the Earth is a benefit album released in 2006, for WWF-Philippines, featuring artists that included Up Dharma Down, Radioactive Sago Project, Kala, Cynthia Alexander, and Joey Ayala.[47]

  • In June 2012, WWF launched an online music download store with fairsharemusic from which 50% of the profit goes to the charity.[48]

  • In April 2015, Hailey Gardiner released her solo EP, titled The Woods. In honor of Earth Day, 15% of the proceeds made towards the purchase of the EP would be donated to the WWF.[49]

Controversies and disputes

ARD documentary

The German public television ARD aired a documentary on 22 June 2011 that claimed to show how the WWF cooperates with corporations such as Monsanto, providing sustainability certification in exchange for donations – essentially greenwashing.[50] WWF has denied the allegations.[51] By encouraging high-impact eco-tourism, the program alleges that WWF contributes to the destruction of habitat and species it claims to protect while also harming indigenous peoples.[52]

The filmmaker, Wilfried Huismann, was sued by the WWF over his book, which was based on this documentary.

In an out of court settlement, he agreed to remove or revise certain claims, although his spokeswoman claims that "The new edition will certainly provide no differentiated analysis of the work of the WWF."


Corporate partnerships

WWF has been accused by the campaigner Corporate Watch of being too close to business to campaign objectively.[11][12] WWF claims partnering with corporations such as Coca-Cola, Lafarge, Carlos Slim's and IKEA will reduce their effect on the environment.[54] WWF received €56 million (US$80 million) from corporations in 2010 (an 8% increase in support from corporations compared to 2009), accounting for 11% of total revenue for the year.[9]

In 2012, German investigative journalist Wilfried Huissmann published a book called The Silence of the Pandas. It became a bestseller in Germany, but was banned from Britain until 2014, when it was released under the title of Pandaleaks, after a series of injunctions and court orders.[55] The book criticizes WWF for its supposed involvement with corporations that are responsible for large-scale destruction of the environment, such as Coca-Cola, and gives details into the existence of the secret 1001 Club, whose members, Huismann claims, continue to have an unhealthy influence on WWF's policy making.[55] WWF has sought to deny the allegations made against it.[56]

Human rights abuses by paramilitaries

In 2017, a report by Survival International claimed that WWF-funded paramilitaries are not only committing abuses against the indigenous Baka and Bayaka in the Congo Basin, who "face harassment and beatings, torture and death", but are also corrupt and aid in the destruction of conserved areas. The report accused the WWF and its guards of partnering with several logging companies who carried out deforestation, while the rangers ignored wildlife trafficking networks.[13]

In 2019, an investigation by BuzzFeed News alleged that paramilitary groups funded by the organisation are engaged in serious human rights abuses against villagers, and the organisation has covered up the incidents and acted to protect the perpetrators from law enforcement. These armed groups were claimed to torture, sexually assault, and execute villagers based on false accusations. In one instance found by BuzzFeed News investigators, an 11-year-old boy was allegedly tortured by WWF-funded rangers in front of his parents;[57] the WWF ignored all complaints against the rangers. In another incident, a ranger attempted to rape a Tharu woman and, when she resisted, attacked her with bamboo stick until she lost consciousness. While the ranger was arrested, the woman was pressured not to press charges, resulting in the ranger going free. In 2010, WWF-sponsored rangers reportedly killed a 12-year-old girl who was collecting tree bark in Bardiya National Park. Park and WWF officials allegedly obstructed investigations in these cases, by "falsifying and destroying evidence, falsely claiming the victims were poachers, and pressuring the families of the victims to withdraw criminal complaints".[57][58] In July 2019 Buzzfeed reported that a leaked report by the WWF accused guards of beating and raping women including pregnant women while torturing men by tying their penises with fishing lines. The investigations were cut short after paramilitary groups threatened investigators with death. The investigators accused WWF of covering up the crimes. Releasing an official statement, the WWF claimed that the report was not made public to ensure the safety of the victims and that the guards were suspended and are awaiting prosecution. However Buzzfeed accused the WWF of attempting to withhold the report to the US congressional committee investigating the human rights violations by providing high redacted versions instead.[59][60]

In the Central African Republic, WWF officials were reportedly involved in an arms deal, where the organization paid for 15 AK assault rifles and ammunition; but part of the money went unaccounted and apparently defrauded by the CAR army representatives selling the weapons.[57]

The Kathmandu Post, which cooperated with BuzzFeed News on the investigations in Nepal, claimed there was intense lobbying and political pressure to release WWF-funded rangers arrested for murder. They interviewed activists who claimed they were promised donations for pressuring victims of abuse to drop charges against the rangers. When the local Tharu community protested, WWF officials carried out a counter-protest in favour of the accused and used park elephants to block Prithvi Highway.[61]

An investigation by Rainforest Foundation UK found evidence of widespread physical and sexual assault by ‘eco-guards’ employed by the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo funded by the WWF. These include two cases of gang rape, two extra-judicial killings, and multiple accounts of torture and other forms of mistreatment committed by park guards.[62]

In reply to the investigations, the WWF stated that it takes any allegations seriously and would be launching an independent review into the cases raised.

The organisation stated it has stringent policies designed to ensure it and its partners are safeguarding the rights and well-being of indigenous peoples and local communities, and should the review uncover any breaches, it is committed to taking swift action.[63]


The President of Honor of WWF in Spain used to be King Juan Carlos I,[64] who has been a known hunting enthusiast. In 1962, when he was 24, he was invited by the German Baron Werner von Alvensleben to a hunt in Mozambique.[65] Since then, the Spanish King has taken part in hunting forays in Africa and Eastern Europe. In October 2004, he was a member of a hunt in Romania that killed a wolf and nine brown bears, including one that was pregnant, according to the Romanian newspaper Romania Libera.[66] He was also accused by a Russian official of killing a bear called Mitrofan, supposedly after giving vodka to the animal, in an episode that sparked controversy in Spain, although the claim was never proven.[67] In the same year, according to The Guardian, the Polish government allowed him to kill a European bison in Białowieża Forest, even though it was an endangered species.[68]

Further controversy arose in April 2012 when the Spanish King's participation in an elephant hunt in Botswana was discovered only after he returned to Spain on an emergency flight after tripping over a step and fracturing his hip.[69] Many Spanish environmental groups and leftist parties criticized the monarch's hobby,[70] and the WWF stripped him of the honorary position in July 2012, in an extraordinary assembly by 94% of the votes of the members.[71]

Prince Charles, the UK head of the WWF,[72] has stated that he enjoys fox hunting.[73]

Initialism dispute

In 2000, the World Wide Fund for Nature sued the World Wrestling Federation (now named WWE) for unfair trade practices. Both parties had shared the initials "WWF" since 1979. The conservation organization claimed that the professional wrestling company had violated a 1994 agreement regarding international use of the WWF initials.[74][75]

On 10 August 2001, a UK court ruled in favour of the World Wide Fund for Nature.

The World Wrestling Federation filed an appeal in October 2001.

However, on 10 May 2002, the World Wrestling Federation changed its Web address from WWF.com to WWE.com, and replaced every "WWF" reference on the existing site with "WWE", as a prelude to changing the company's name to "World Wrestling Entertainment." Its stock ticker also switched from WWF to WWE.

The wrestling organization's abandonment of the "WWF" initialism did not end the two organizations' legal conflict. Later in 2002, the World Wide Fund for Nature petitioned the court for $360 million in damages, but was not successful. A subsequent request to overturn by the World Wide Fund for Nature was dismissed by the British Court of Appeal on 28 June 2007. In 2003, World Wrestling Entertainment won a limited decision which permitted them to continue marketing certain pre-existing products with the abandoned WWF logo. However, WWE was mandated to issue newly branded merchandise such as apparel, action figures, video games, and DVDs with the "WWE" initials. Additionally, the court order required the company to remove both auditory and visual references to "WWF" in its library of video footage outside the United Kingdom.

Starting with the 1,000th episode of Raw in July 2012, the WWF "scratch" logo is no longer censored in archival footage. In addition, the WWF initials are no longer censored when spoken or when written in plain text in archival footage. In exchange, WWE is no longer permitted to use the WWF initials or logo in any new, original footage, packaging, or advertising, with any old-school logos for retro-themed programming now using a modification of the original WWF logo without the F.

Mekong River dolphins report

In June 2009, Touch Seang Tana, chairman of Cambodia's Commission for Conservation and Development of the Mekong River Dolphins Eco-tourism Zone, argued that the WWF had misrepresented the danger of extinction of the Mekong dolphin to boost fundraising.[76] The report stated that the deaths were caused by a bacterial disease that became fatal due to environmental contaminants suppressing the dolphins' immune systems.[77] He called the report unscientific and harmful to the Cambodian government and threatened the WWF's Cambodian branch with suspension unless they met with him to discuss his claims.[78] Touch Seang Tana later said he would not press charges of supplying false information and would not make any attempt to prevent WWF from continuing its work in Cambodia, but advised WWF to adequately explain its findings and check with the commission before publishing another report. After this, in January 2012, Touch Seang Tana signed the "Kratie Declaration on the Conservation of the Mekong River Irrawaddy Dolphin" along with WWF and the Cambodian Fisheries Administration, an agreement binding the parties to work together on a "roadmap" addressing dolphin conservation in the Mekong River.[79]

See also

  • Centres of Plant Diversity

  • Conservation movement

  • Environmental Dispute Resolution Fund

  • Environmental movement

  • Eugene Green Energy Standard, founded by the WWF.

  • Global 200, ecoregions identified by the WWF as priorities for conservation

  • List of environmental organizations

  • Natural environment

  • Sustainability

  • Sustainable development

  • Traffic (conservation programme), a joint programme of WWF and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

  • West Coast Environmental Law

  • World Conservation Award, created in conjunction with the WWF


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