The terms left-hand traffic (LHT) and right-hand traffic (RHT) refer to regulations requiring all bidirectional traffic , unless otherwise directed, to keep to the left side or to the right side of the road, respectively. This is so fundamental to traffic flow that it is sometimes referred to as the rule of the road .

One hundred and sixty-three countries and territories use RHT, with the remaining seventy-six countries and territories using LHT . Countries that use LHT account for about a sixth of the world's area and a quarter of its roads. [8] In the early 1900s some countries including Canada , Spain , and Brazil had different rules in different parts of the country. During the 1900s many countries standardised within their jurisdictions, and changed from LHT to RHT, mostly to conform with regional custom. In 1919, 104 of the world's territories were LHT and an equal number were RHT. From 1919 to 1986, 34 of the LHT territories switched to RHT. [9]

Many of the countries with LHT are former British colonies in the Caribbean , Southern Africa , Southeast Asia , South Asia , Australia , and New Zealand . Japan , Thailand , Nepal , Bhutan , Mozambique , Suriname , East Timor , and Indonesia are among those LHT countries outside the former British Empire . In Europe , only four countries still drive on the left: the United Kingdom , Ireland , Malta , and Cyprus , all of which are on islands that have no direct road connections with countries driving on the right.

Nearly all countries use one side or the other throughout their entire territory. Most exceptions are due to historical considerations and/or involve islands with no road connection to the main part of a country. China is RHT except the Special Administrative Regions of China of Hong Kong and Macau . The United States is RHT except the United States Virgin Islands . [10] The United Kingdom is LHT, but its overseas territories of Gibraltar and British Indian Ocean Territory are RHT.

According to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea , water traffic is RHT. For aircraft the US Federal Aviation Regulations provide for passing on the right, both in the air and on water. [11]

Light rail vehicles generally operate on the same side as road traffic in a country. Some countries use RHT for automobiles but LHT for trains, often because of the influence of the British on early railway systems. In countries such as Indonesia, it is the reverse (RHT for railways and LHT for roads).

There is no technical reason to prefer one side over the other. [12] In healthy populations, traffic safety is thought to be the same regardless of handedness , although some researchers have speculated that LHT may be safer for ageing populations [14] since humans are more commonly right-eye dominant than left-eye dominant. [15]

History

Image
Change of traffic directions at the Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge

Ancient Greek, Egyptian, and Roman troops kept to the left when marching. In 1998, archaeologists found a well-preserved double track leading to a Roman quarry near Swindon , in southern England. The grooves in the road on the left side (viewed facing down the track away from the quarry) were much deeper than those on the right side, suggesting LHT, at least at this location, since carts would exit the quarry heavily loaded, and enter it empty. [17]

The first reference in English law to an order for LHT was in 1756, with regard to London Bridge . [18]

Image
Left-hand traffic in Vienna , Austria circa 1930.

Some historians, such as C. Northcote Parkinson , believed that ancient travellers on horseback or on foot generally kept to the left, since most people were right handed. If two men riding on horseback were to start a fight, each would edge toward the left. In the year 1300, Pope Boniface VIII directed pilgrims to keep left.

In the late 1700s, traffic in the United States was RHT based on teamsters ' use of large freight wagons pulled by several pairs of horses. The wagons had no driver's seat, so the (typically right-handed) postilion held his whip in his right hand and thus sat on the left rear horse. Seated on the left, the driver preferred that other wagons pass him on the left so that he could be sure to keep clear of the wheels of oncoming wagons. [19]

In France, traditionally foot traffic had kept right, while carriage traffic kept left. Following the French Revolution , all traffic kept right. [18] Following the Napoleonic Wars , the French imposed RHT on parts of Europe. During the colonial period, RHT was introduced by the French in New France , French West Africa , the Maghreb , French Indochina , the West Indies , French Guiana and the Réunion , among others.

Meanwhile, LHT was introduced by the British in Atlantic Canada , Australia, New Zealand, the East Africa Protectorate , British India , Southern Rhodesia and the Cape Colony (now Zimbabwe and South Africa), British Malaya (now Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore), British Guiana , and British Hong Kong . LHT was also introduced by the Portuguese Empire in Portuguese Macau , Colonial Brazil , East Timor, Portuguese Mozambique , and Angola .

The first keep-right law for driving in the United States was passed in 1792 and applied to the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike . [12] New York formalized RHT in 1804, New Jersey in 1813 and Massachusetts in 1821. [20]

Changing sides

Image
Hong Kong drivers on the left.

Europe

Influential in Europe was the 1920 Paris Convention, which advised driving on the right-hand side of the road, in order to harmonise traffic across a continent with many borders. This was despite the fact that left-hand traffic was still widespread: in 1915 for example, LHT was introduced everywhere in the Austro-Hungarian Empire . [21] However, three years later the Empire was split up into several countries, and they all changed eventually to RHT, notably including when Nazi Germany introduced RHT with almost immediate effect in Czechoslovakia in 1938-39. [22]

Sweden was LHT from about 1734 to 1967, [24] despite having land borders with RHT countries, and approximately 90 percent of cars being left-hand drive (LHD) vehicles. [25] A referendum was held in 1955, with an overwhelming majority voting against a change to RHT. Nevertheless, some years later the government ordered a conversion, which took place at 5 am on Sunday, 3 September 1967. The accident rate dropped sharply after the change, [27] but soon rose back to near its original level. [28] The day was known as Dagen H ("H-Day"), the 'H' being for Högertrafik ("right traffic"). When Iceland switched the following year, it was known as H-dagurinn , again meaning "H-Day". [30]

In the late 1960s, the UK Department for Transport considered switching to RHT, but declared it unsafe and too costly for such a built-up nation. [31] Road building standards, for motorways in particular, allow asymmetrically designed road junctions, where merge and diverge lanes differ in length. [32]

Asia and the Pacific

China adopted RHT in 1946. Taiwan changed to driving on the right at the same time. Hong Kong and Macau continue to be LHT.

Both North Korea and South Korea switched to RHT in September 1945 after liberation from Japan which was defeated and surrendered by the Allies.

Myanmar switched to RHT in 1970. [33]

Samoa , a former German colony, had been RHT for more than a century. It switched to LHT in 2009, [34] being the first territory in almost 30 years to switch. [35] The move was legislated in 2008 to allow Samoans to use cheaper right hand drive (RHD) vehicles imported from Australia, New Zealand or Japan, and to harmonise with other South Pacific nations. A political party, The People's Party , was formed to try to protest against the change, a protest group which launched a legal challenge, [36] and an estimated 18,000 people attending demonstrations against it. [37] The motor industry was also opposed, as 14,000 of Samoa's 18,000 vehicles are designed for RHT and the government has refused to meet the cost of conversion. [35] After months of preparation, the switch from right to left happened in an atmosphere of national celebration. There were no reported incidents. [8] At 05:50 local time, Monday 7 September, a radio announcement halted traffic, and an announcement at 6:00 ordered traffic to switch to LHT. [34] The change coincided with more restrictive enforcement of speeding and seat-belt laws. [38] That day and the following day were declared public holidays, to reduce traffic. [39] The change included a three-day ban on alcohol sales, while police mounted dozens of checkpoints, warning drivers to drive slowly. [8]

The Philippines was mostly LHT during its Spanish [41] and American colonial periods, [42] [43] as well as during the Commonwealth era . [44] During the Japanese occupation the Philippines remained LHT, [45] also because LHT had been required by the Japanese; [46] but during the Battle of Manila the liberating American forces drove their tanks to the right for easier facilitation of movement. RHT was formally finalised by Executive Order No. 34 signed by President Sergio Osmeña on 10 March 1945. [47]

Africa

A number of non-contiguous former British colonies in West Africa originally drove LHT and switched to RHT in the early 1970s to match the surrounding countries. Sierra Leone switched to RHT in 1971, Nigeria in 1972 and Ghana in 1974. Before this period The Gambia , a country entirely contained within RHT Senegal, had officially switched to RHT in 1965.

Rwanda , a former Belgian colony in central Africa, is RHT but is considering switching to LHT, to bring the country in line with other members of the East African Community (EAC). [48] A survey, carried out in 2009, indicated that 54% of Rwandans were in favour of the switch. Reasons cited were the perceived lower costs of RHD vehicles as opposed to LHD versions of the same model, easier maintenance and the political benefit of harmonisation of traffic regulations with other EAC countries. The same survey also indicated that RHD cars are 16 to 49 per cent cheaper than their LHD equivalents. [49] In 2014 an internal report from consultants to the Ministry of Infrastructure recommended a switch to LHT. [51] In 2015, the ban on RHD vehicles was lifted; RHD trucks from neighbouring countries cost $1000 less than LHD models imported from Europe. [52] [53]

Changing sides at borders

Image
Mainland China drives on the right.

While most LHT jurisdictions are on islands, there are cases where vehicles may be driven from LHT across a border into a RHT area.

LHT Thailand has three RHT neighbours: Cambodia , Laos , Myanmar . Most of its borders use a simple traffic light to do the switch, but there are also interchanges which enable the switch while keeping up a continuous flow of traffic. [54]

There are four road border crossing points between Hong Kong and Mainland China. In 2006, the daily average number of vehicle trips recorded at Lok Ma Chau was 31,100. [55] The next largest is Man Kam To , where there is no changeover system and the border roads on the mainland side Wenjindu intersect as one-way streets with a main road.

The Takutu River Bridge (which links LHT Guyana and RHT Brazil [56] ) is the only border in the Americas where traffic changes sides.

Although the United Kingdom is separated from Continental Europe by the English Channel , the level of cross-Channel traffic is very high; the Channel Tunnel alone carries 3.5 million vehicles per year, by rail, between the UK and France.

Road vehicle configurations

Driver seating position

Image
Traffic moves from left to right in Stockholm , Sweden , on 3 September 1967

In RHT jurisdictions, vehicles are configured with LHD, with the driver sitting on the left side. In LHT jurisdictions, the reverse is true. The driver's side, the side closest to the centre of the road, is sometimes called the offside , while the passenger side, the side closest to the side of the road, is sometimes called the nearside . [57]

Historically there was less consistency in the relationship of the position of the driver to the handedness of traffic. Most American cars produced before 1910 were RHD. [12] In 1908 Henry Ford standardised the Model T as LHD in RHT America, [12] arguing that with RHD and RHT, the passenger was obliged to "get out on the street side and walk around the car" and that with steering from the left, the driver "is able to see even the wheels of the other car and easily avoids danger." [58] By 1915 other manufacturers followed Ford's lead, due to the popularity of the Model T. [12]

In specialised cases, the driver will sit on the nearside, or kerbside. Examples include:

  • Where the driver needs a good view of the nearside, e.g. street sweepers , or vehicles driven along unstable road edges. [60]
  • Where it is more convenient for the driver to be on the nearside, e.g. delivery vehicles. The Grumman LLV postal delivery truck is widely used with RHD configurations in RHT North America. Some Unimogs are designed to be switch between LHD and RHD to permit operators to work on the more convenient side of the truck.

Generally, the convention is to mount a motorcycle on the left, [61] and kickstands are usually on the left [62] which makes it more convenient to mount on the safer kerbside [62] as is the case in LHT. Some jurisdictions prohibit fitting a sidecar to a motorcycle's offside. [10] [10]

Headlamps and other lighting equipment

Image
A road sign in the British county of Kent placed on the right-hand side of the road.

Most low-beam headlamps produce an asymmetrical beam distribution suitable for use on only one side of the road. Low beam headlamps for use in LH-traffic countries throw most of their light forward-leftward; those for RH-traffic countries throw most of their light forward-rightward, thus illuminating obstacles and road signs an adequate distance ahead on the driver's own side of the road while limiting glare to oncoming traffic on the other side of the road.

Within Europe, headlamps designed and approved for use on one side of the road must be adaptable to produce adequate illumination with controlled glare for temporarily driving on the other side of the road, [66] : p.13 ¶5.8 as for example on holiday or in transit. This adaptation may be achieved by affixing masking strips or prismatic lenses to a designated part of the lens or by moving all or part of the headlamp optic so all or part of the beam is shifted or the asymmetrical portion is occluded. [66] : p.13 ¶5.8.1 Some varieties of the projector-type headlamp can be fully adjusted to produce a proper LH- or RH-traffic beam by shifting a lever or other movable element in or on the lamp assembly. [66] : p.12 ¶5.4 Some vehicles adjust the headlamps automatically when the car's GPS detects that the vehicle has moved from LH to RH traffic or vice versa.

Because blackout strips and adhesive prismatic lenses reduce the safety performance of the headlamps, most countries require all vehicles registered or used on a permanent or semi-permanent basis within the country to be equipped with headlamps designed for the correct traffic-handedness.

Without sidecars attached, motorcycles, motor scooters , mopeds , and bicycles are almost symmetric with their handlebars in the centre. However, motorcycles are often equipped with automotive-type asymmetrical-beam headlamps that likewise require adjustments or replacement when brought into a country with opposite traffic-handedness.

Rear fog lamps

Within the European Union, vehicles must be equipped with one or two rear-facing red rear fog lamps . A single rear fog lamp must be located between the vehicle's longitudinal centreline and the outer extent of the driver's side of the vehicle. [10] When importing a vehicle to a country which drives on the opposite side of the road, this sometimes requires the purchase and installation of local-market lighting components.

Crash Testing differences

Some crash test results indicate that the RHD variant of a vehicle primarily developed for a LHD country may not protect the driver as well as the LHD variant, although differences in testing methodology could also cause the results to vary. [10]

One of the possible causes of this difference in crash test results is the RHD variant will not be an exact mirror image of the LHD variant. The number of differences in chassis, bodywork and parts needed to produce the RHD variant will be minimised to reduce the cost. The RHD vehicle is usually a variant of the LHD markets, due to potentially lower sales volumes of the RHD variant. When minimising the changes needed for the RHD variant, there is a possibility that key strengthening structures that would protect the driver in a crash may not be transferred to the driver side in the RHD variant. (There are no easily reference-able sources for LHD variant performing less well in crash testing than the RHD variant where the vehicle is primarily manufactured for/in RHD markets).

It is commonplace in Europe for only the LHD variant of a vehicle to be tested under the Euro NCAP crash testing scheme, although the result will be used in the promotion of the RHD variant in European countries which operate LHT.

Worldwide distribution by country

Of the 193 countries currently recognised by the United Nations (and the unrecognised Palestine ), 140 use RHT and 54 use LHT. A country and its territories and dependencies is counted once.

Country Road traffic Road switched sides Multi-track rail traffic generally Notes
Image
Border between Sweden and Norway in 1934
RHTRHT/LHTWas LHT until the 1950s, in line with neighbouring British Raj and later Pakistan . [10]
Image
Bolivia is RHT, with the exception of Yungas Road which is LHT to help drivers see their outer wheel.
RHT [70] RHT
Image
Bird's-eye view of low beam light pattern for RH traffic, with long seeing range on the right and short cutoff on the left so oncoming drivers are not dazzled.
RHT [70] RHT
Image
Headlamp sold in Sweden not long before Dagen H change from left- to right-hand traffic. Opaque decal blocks lens portion that would provide low beam upkick to the right, and bears warning "Not to be removed before 3 September 1967".
RHT [70] Angola RHT [70] 1928 Antigua and Barbuda LHT [70] Argentina RHT10 June 1945LHTThe anniversary on 10 June is still observed each year as Día de la Seguridad Vial (road safety day). [10]
The Metrotranvía Mendoza uses RHT. Armenia RHT [70] RHT Australia LHT [72] LHTCommonwealth. Includes Christmas Island , Cocos Islands , Norfolk Island Austria RHT1921 in Vorarlberg , 1930 in North Tyrol , 1935 in Carinthia and East Tyrol , 1938 in the rest of the country.RHT [11] Originally LHT, like most of former Austria-Hungary . Azerbaijan RHT [70] RHT Bahamas LHT [70] In Bahamas LHD vehicles are common due to the import of used cars from nearby USA [11] . Bahrain RHT1967Former British protectorate. Switched to same side as neighbours. [11] Bangladesh LHT [70] LHT Barbados LHT Belgium RHT [70] 1899LHTThe Brussels Metro uses RHT. Belarus RHT [70] RHT Belize RHT1961Former British colony. Switched to same side as neighbours. Benin RHT [70] Bhutan LHT [70] Under British protection before 1949. Bolivia RHT [70] Botswana LHT [70] Brazil RHT1928 [70] LHTA Portuguese colony until the early 19th century , switched some states still using LHT [11] to RHT in 1928. [11]
Most metro systems use RHT. Brunei LHT [70] Bosnia and Herzegovina RHT [70] RHT [11] Switched sides after the collapse of Austria-Hungary . Bulgaria RHT [70] RHT Burkina Faso RHT [70] Burundi RHTConsidering switching to LHT [79] in line with neighbours Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. Cambodia RHTRHT implemented while part of French Indochina . RHD cars, many of which were smuggled from Thailand, were banned from 2001, even though they accounted for 80% of vehicles in the country. [11] Cameroon RHT [70] 1961 Canada RHT1920sRHTTerritories now in Canada have always been RHT, except British Columbia , which changed to RHT in stages from 1920 to 1923, [11] [11] and New Brunswick , Nova Scotia , and Prince Edward Island which changed in 1922, 1923, and 1924 respectively. [83] Newfoundland and Labrador changed to RHT in 1947 while still a dominion of the British Empire, two years before joining Canada. [84] Cape Verde RHT [70] 1928 Central African Republic RHT [70] Chad RHT [70] Chile RHT [70] LHTThe Santiago Metro uses RHT. China RHT
( Mainland China )
LHT
( Hong Kong & Macau ) [72] 1946RHT/LHTAt one time, northern provinces were RHT due to American influence, while southern provinces were LHT due to British influence. LHT was uniform in the 1930s. China includes LHT Hong Kong and Macau , former colonies of Britain and Portugal, respectively.
Most metro systems use RHT, with the exception of the Hong Kong MTR . Colombia RHT [70] RHT Comoros RHT [70] Congo RHT [70] Democratic Republic of Congo RHT [70] Costa Rica RHT [70] Côte d'Ivoire RHT [70] Croatia RHT [70] RHTIstria and Dalmatia were RHT, while Croatia-Slavonia was LHT when Croatia was part of Austria-Hungary [85] . The LHT regions switched to RHT on joining the Kingdom of Yugoslavia . Cuba RHT [70] Cyprus LHT [70] Former British colony. Czech Republic RHT [70] 1939RHTWas LHT, like most of former Austria-Hungary, switched during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia . Denmark RHTRHT [86] Includes Faroe Islands and Greenland Djibouti RHT [70] Dominica LHT [70] Former British colony. Dominican Republic RHT [70] East Timor LHT1976Originally LHT, like its colonial power Portugal. Switched to RHT with Portugal in 1928. Under the Indonesian occupation of East Timor , changed back to LHT in 1976. Ecuador RHT [70] LHTThe Quito Metro and Cuenca tram system will use RHT Egypt RHT [70] LHTRoad vehicles are RHT due to French influence, but railway system was built by British companies. El Salvador RHT [70] Equatorial Guinea RHT [70] Eritrea RHT [70] 1964 Estonia RHT [70] RHT Ethiopia RHT [70] 1964LHTThe Addis Ababa Light Rail runs on the right. Fiji LHT Finland RHT1858RHT/LHTFormerly ruled by LHT Sweden, switched to RHT as the Grand Duchy of Finland by Russian decree. [87] Majority of Helsinki commuter rail uses LHT. France RHT1792LHT [88] /RHTIncludes French Polynesia , New Caledonia , Saint Pierre and Miquelon , Wallis and Futuna , French Guiana , Réunion , Saint Barthélemy , Collectivity of Saint Martin , Guadeloupe , Mayotte .
Most metro systems use RHT, except for the Lyon Metro . Gabon RHT [70] Gambia RHT [70] 1965 Georgia RHT [70] RHTAbout 40% vehicles in Georgia are RHD due to low cost of used cars from Japan [89] . Germany RHT [90] RHT Ghana RHT1974Former British colony. When changing to RHT a Twi language slogan was "Nifa, Nifa Enan" or "Right, Right, Fourth". [91] Greece RHT [70] RHT Grenada LHT [70] Guatemala RHT [70] Guinea RHT [70] Guinea-Bissau RHT [70] 1928 Guyana LHT [70] Haiti RHT [70] Honduras RHT [70] Hungary RHT [70] 1941RHTOriginally LHT, like most of Austria-Hungary . Iceland RHT1968The day of the switch was known as H-dagurinn . Most passenger cars were already LHD. Iran RHT [70] RHT Iraq RHT [70] LHT India LHT [70] LHTFormer British colony. Indonesia LHT [72] RHT [92] The Jakarta MRT will use LHT. Ireland LHT [70] LHTFormer British Dominion. Israel RHT [70] LHTThe Jerusalem Light Rail uses RHT. Italy RHT1920sLHTUntil 1927 the countryside was RHT while cities were LHT. [14] Rome changed to RHT in 1924 and Milan in 1926. Alfa Romeo and Lancia did not produce LHD cars until as late as 1950 and 1953 respectively, as many drivers favoured the RHD layout even in RHT as this offered the driver a clearer view of the edge of the road in mountainous regions at a time when many such roads lacked barriers or walls. [14]
The metro systems in Brescia , Genoa , Milan , and Turin use RHT, as well as all tram systems. Jamaica LHT [70] Japan LHT [14] LHTPost- World War II Okinawa was ruled by the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands and was RHT. It was returned to Japan in 1972 went LHT in 1978. [14] The conversion operation was known as 730 ( Nana-San-Maru , which means Nana(7)-San(3)-Maru(0)). Okinawa is one of few places to have changed from RHT to LHT in the late 20th century. Jordan RHT [70] RHT, despite the Mandate for Palestine and the Transjordan memorandum being under British rule till 1946. Kazakhstan RHT [70] RHT Kenya LHT [14] British colony until 1963. Kiribati LHT [70] North Korea and South Korea RHT1946LHTKorea had been LHT because of the influence of Japan in the 1900s. Switched to RHT under Soviet and American occupation after 1945.
Most metro systems in South Korea use RHT (exceptions include Seoul Subway Line 1 and the Bundang Line ); metro system in Pyongyang uses a mixture of RHT and LHT. Kuwait RHT [70] Kyrgyzstan RHTRHTFormer part of RHT Soviet Union . In 2012, over 20,000 cheaper used RHD cars were imported from Japan. [14] Laos RHT [70] LHTRHT implemented while part of French Indochina . Latvia RHT [70] RHT Lebanon RHT [70] Former French mandate. Lesotho LHT [70] Liberia RHT [70] Libya RHT [70] Liechtenstein RHT [70] RHT Lithuania RHT [70] RHT Luxembourg RHT [70] RHT Macedonia RHT [70] RHT Madagascar RHT [70] Malawi LHT [70] Malaysia LHT [70] LHTFormer British colony. Maldives LHT [70] Mali RHT [70] Malta LHT [70] British colony until 1964. Marshall Islands RHT [70] Mauritania RHTMining roads between Fdérik and Zouérat are LHT. [14] Mauritius LHT [70] Former British colony. Island nation. Mexico RHT [70] RHT Micronesia RHT [70] Moldova RHT [70] RHT Monaco RHT [70] LHT Mongolia RHT [70] RHT Montenegro RHT [70] RHT Morocco RHT [70] RHT Mozambique LHT [99] LHT Myanmar RHT1970LHTMuch of infrastructure still geared to LHT, most cars are pre-owned RHD vehicles, imported from Japan. [14] Netherlands RHT1906 [101] RHTRotterdam was LHT until 1917. [15] Includes Curaçao , Sint Maarten , and Aruba Namibia LHT1918RHT as a German colony. After South Africa occupied German South-West Africa during World War I, switched to LHT. South-West Africa was made a South African mandate by the League of Nations, and the new rule of the road was established in law. [15] Nauru LHT [70] 1918 Nepal LHT [15] New Zealand LHT [72] LHTIncludes territories Niue and Cook Islands Nicaragua RHT [70] Niger RHT [70] Nigeria RHT1972 [15] LHTFormer British colony. Switched to RHT as it is surrounded by former French RHT colonies. Norway RHT [70] RHT Oman RHTNot a party to the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic and bans all foreign-registered RHD vehicles. [15] Palau RHT [70] RHT Palestine RHT [70] Pakistan LHT [70] LHT Panama RHT1943 [15] Papua New Guinea LHT [70] Paraguay RHT1945 [108] Peru RHT [70] LHT Philippines RHT1946 [47] RHTLHT up until the Battle of Manila in 1945 Poland RHTRHT Partitions of Poland belonging to the German Empire and the Russian Empire were RHT. Partitions that were part of Austria-Hungary were LHT and changed to RHT in the 1920s. [110] Portugal RHT [72] 1928LHTColonies Goa , Macau and Mozambique, which had land borders with LHT countries, did not switch and continue to drive on the left. [99] The Porto Metro uses RHT. Qatar RHT [70] Romania RHT [70] RHT Russia RHT [70] RHTIn the Russian Far East RHD vehicles are common due to the import of used cars from nearby Japan. [111] Railway between Moscow and Ryazan is LHT. Sormovskaya line in Nizhny Novgorod Metro also uses LHT. Rwanda RHT [79] Former Belgian mandate. Considering switching to LHT [79] [112] like its neighbours Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. Saint Kitts and Nevis LHT Saint Lucia LHT Saint Vincent and the Grenadines LHT Samoa LHT2009Switched to LHT to allow the import of cars more cheaply from Australia, New Zealand and Japan. [72] San Marino RHT [70] São Tomé and Príncipe RHT [70] 1928 Saudi Arabia RHT [70] LHTThe Makkah Metro uses RHT. Senegal RHT [70] Serbia RHT [70] RHT Vojvodina was LHT while part of Austria-Hungary. Seychelles LHT [70] Sierra Leone RHT1971 [113] Importation of RHD vehicles was banned in 2013. [114] Singapore LHT [70] LHTFormer British colony. Slovakia RHT [70] 1939–41RHT Slovenia RHT [70] LHT Solomon Islands LHT [70] Somalia RHT1968 [115] South Africa LHT [116] [117] LHTFormer British colony. South Sudan RHT1973Was LHT during the period of British colonial rule . Split from Sudan in 2011 after the majority of the population voted for independence. Spain RHT1924RHTUp to the 1920s Barcelona was RHT, and Madrid was LHT until 1924. The Madrid and Bilbao metro systems use LHT. Sri Lanka LHT [70] LHTFormer British Colony. Sudan RHT [70] 1973Former British Colony. Suriname LHT [70] Swaziland LHT [70] Sweden RHT [70] 3 September 1967LHTThe day of the switch was known as Dagen H . Most passenger cars were already LHD. The tram systems in Gothenburg and Norrköping use RHT; the tram system in Stockholm is mostly RHT but some LHT. The railways in Malmö uses RHT due to the connection to Denmark. Switzerland RHT [70] LHTThe tram system in Zurich and the Lausanne Metro use RHT. Syria RHT [70] Taiwan RHT1946LHTWas LHT during the period of Japanese rule . The government of the Republic of China changed Taiwan to RHT in 1946 along with the rest of China. [118] Most metro systems use RHT. Tajikistan RHT [70] RHT Tanzania LHT [70] Thailand LHT [72] LHTOne of the few LHT countries not a former British colony. Shares long land border with RHT Laos and Cambodia. Togo RHT [70] Tonga LHT [70] Trinidad and Tobago LHT [119] Former British colony. Tunisia RHT [70] LHTFrench RHT was enforced in the French protectorate of Tunisia from 1881. Turkey RHT [70] RHT Turkmenistan RHT [70] RHT Tuvalu LHT [70] Uganda LHT [70] Ukraine RHT1922 [110] RHTWest Ukraine was LHT, like most of former Austria-Hungary. Carpathian Ruthenia remained LHT as part of Czechoslovakia before switching in 1941 as part of Hungary. The rest of Ukraine, having been part of the Russian Empire , already drove on the right.
Some sections of Kryvyi Rih Metrotram use LHT due to tramcars have doors only on right side, which makes it impossible to use RHT at stations with island platforms [120] . United Arab Emirates RHT [70] RHT United Kingdom LHT
(Mainland UK)
RHT
( Gibraltar ) LHTIncludes Crown Dependencies and Overseas Territories Isle of Man , Guernsey , Jersey , Anguilla , Bermuda , British Virgin Islands , Cayman Islands , Falkland Islands , Montserrat , Pitcairn Islands , Turks and Caicos Islands , Saint Helena, Ascension, Tristan da Cunha are all left hand drive. Gibraltar has been RHT since 1929 because of its land border with Spain. [17] The Channel Islands (Jersey and Guernsey) drove on the right under German occupation until their liberation in 1945. [17] The Falkland Islands similarly drove on the right during their occupation by Argentina in 1982. [17] United States RHT
LHT
( U.S. Virgin Islands ) RHT/LHT [17] Includes American Samoa , Guam , Northern Mariana Islands , Puerto Rico . U.S. Virgin Islands is LHT, like much of the Caribbean. Uruguay RHT [108] 1945LHTBecame LHT in 1918, but as in some other countries in South America, changed to RHT on 2 September 1945. A speed limit of 30 km/h (19 mph) was observed until 30 September for safety. Uzbekistan RHT [70] RHT Vanuatu RHT [17] Venezuela RHT [70] LHTThe Caracas Metro uses RHT. Vietnam RHT [70] LHTBecame RHT as French Indochina . Yemen RHT1977 South Yemen , formerly the British colony of Aden , changed to RHT 1977. A series of postage stamps commemorating the event was issued. [17] North Yemen was already RHT. Zambia LHT [70] Zimbabwe LHTLHTFormer British colony. In 2010 the government attempted to ban LHD vehicles. [17]

Traffic behaviour

Manoeuvre LHT RHT
Unless overtaking stay on the left right
In roundabouts traffic rotates clockwise anticlockwise
Oncoming traffic is seen coming from the right left
Traffic must cross oncoming traffic when turning right left
Most traffic signs are on the left right
Pedestrians crossing a two-way road look first for traffic from their right left
Dual carriageway ramps are on the left right
After stopping at a red light it may be legal to turn left right

See also