The Los Angeles Police Department ( LAPD ), officially the City of Los Angeles Police Department , is the Los Angeles police department . With 9,843 officers  and 2,773 civilian staff,  it is the third-largest municipal police department in the United States, after the New York City Police Department and the Chicago Police Department .  The department serves an area of 498 square miles (1,290 km 2 ) and a population of 4,030,904 people.
The LAPD has been fictionalized in numerous movies, novels, and television shows throughout its history. The department has also been associated with a number of controversies, mainly concerned with racism , police brutality , and police corruption .
The first specific Los Angeles police force was founded in 1853, as the Los Angeles Rangers, a volunteer force that assisted the existing County forces.   The Rangers were soon succeeded by the Los Angeles City Guards, another volunteer group. Neither force was particularly efficient and Los Angeles became known for its violence, gambling and vice . 
The first paid force was created in 1869, when six officers were hired to serve under City Marshal William C. Warren .  By 1900, under John M. Glass , there were 70 officers, one for every 1,500 people. In 1903, with the start of the Civil Service, this force was increased to 200. 
The CBS radio show Calling All Cars hired LAPD radio dispacher Jesse Rosenquist to be the voice of the dispatcher.   Rosenquist was already famous because home radios could tune in to early police radio frequencies. As the first police radio dispatcher presented to the public ear, he was the voice that actors went to when called upon for a radio dispatcher role. 
During World War II , under Clemence B. Horrall , the overall number of personnel was depleted by the demands of the military.  Despite efforts to maintain numbers, the police could do little to control the 1943 Zoot Suit Riots . 
Horrall was replaced by retired United States Marine Corps general William A. Worton , who acted as interim chief until 1950, when William H. Parker succeeded him and would serve until his death in 1966. Parker advocated police professionalism and autonomy from civilian administration. However, the Bloody Christmas scandal in 1951 led to calls for civilian accountability and an end to alleged police brutality. 
The iconic television series Dragnet , with LAPD Detective Joe Friday as the primary character, was the first major media representation of the department. Real LAPD operations inspired Jack Webb to create the series and close cooperation with department officers let him make it as realistic as possible, including authentic police equipment and sound recording on-site at the police station.
Due to Dragnet' s popularity, LAPD Chief Parker "became after J. Edgar Hoover , the most well known and respected law enforcement official in the nation" at that time. In the 1960s, when the LAPD under Chief Thomas Reddin expanded its community relations division and began efforts to reach out to the African-American community, Dragnet followed suit with more emphasis on internal affairs and community policing than solving crimes, the show's previous mainstay. 
Under Parker, LAPD created the first SWAT (Special Weapons and Tactics) team in United States law enforcement.  Officer John Nelson and then-Inspector Daryl Gates  created the program in 1965 to deal with threats from radical organizations such as the Black Panther Party operating during the Vietnam War era. 
The old headquarters for the LAPD was Parker Center , named after former chief William H. Parker, which still stands at 150 N. Los Angeles St. The new headquarters is 300 yards (270 m) west in the purpose built Police Administration Building located at 100 W. 1st St., immediately south of Los Angeles City Hall, which officially opened in October 2009.
Board of Police Commissioners
The Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners also known as the Police Commission, is a five-member body of appointed officials which oversees the LAPD.  The board is responsible for setting policies for the department and overseeing the LAPD's overall management and operations. The Chief of Police reports to the board, but the rest of the department reports to the chief. 
Office of the Inspector General
The Office of the Inspector General is an independent part of the LAPD that has oversight over the department's internal disciplinary process and reviewing complaints of officer misconduct.  It was created by the recommendation of the Christopher Commission and it is exempt from civil service and reports directly to the Board of Police Commissioners.  The current Inspector General is Alexander A. Bustamante who was formerly an Assistant United States Attorney .  The OIG receives copies of every complaint filed against members of the LAPD as well as tracking specific cases along with any resultant litigation.  The OIG also conducts audits on select investigations and conducts regular reviews of the disciplinary system in order to ensure fairness and equality.  As well as overseeing the LAPD's disciplinary process, the Inspector General may undertake special investigations as directed by the Board of Police Commissioners. 
Office of the Chief
The Office of the Chief of Police is the administrative office comprising the Chief of Staff and the Employee Relations Group. Also reporting to the chief of police is the Director of the Office of Constitutional Policing and Policy, whose office is divided into the Community Policing and Policy Group, Risk Management Legal Affairs Group and Media Relations. The Information Technology Bureau and the Professional Standards Bureau, which includes the Internal Affairs Group, Special Operations Division and Force Investigation Division, also reports directly to the Office of Chiefs.
Office of Operations
The majority of the LAPD's approximately 10,000  officers are assigned within the Office of Operations, whose primary office is located in the new Police Administration Building.  An Assistant Chief, currently First Assistant Chief Michel Moore, commands the office, and reports directly to the chief of police.
The LAPD Office of Operations comprises 21 police stations, known officially as "areas" but also commonly referred to as "divisions". 
The Office of Operations also comprises COMPSTAT (Computer Statistics) which maintains crime data. It holds regular weekly meetings within a purpose-built suite in the new Police Administration Building with the Chief of Police and senior officers. COMPSTAT is based on the NYPD CompStat unit that was created in 1994 by former LAPD Chief William Bratton , while he was still a NYPD Police Commissioner .  He implemented the LAPD version on becoming Chief of Police in 2002. 
The Central Bureau is responsible for downtown Los Angeles and Eastern Los Angeles ,  and is the most densely populated of the four patrol bureaus.  It consists of five patrol divisions and a traffic division, which handles traffic-related duties such as accident investigation and the issuing of citations/tickets. 
|Division Number||Division Name||Areas Served|
|1||Central Area||Downtown , the Fashion District , the Financial District . |
|2||Rampart Area||Echo Park , Pico-Union , Westlake |
|4||Hollenbeck Area||Boyle Heights , Lincoln Heights , El Sereno . |
|11||Northeast Area||Elysian Park , Echo Park, Silver Lake , Los Feliz , Hollywood , Highland Park , Eagle Rock , Atwater Village , Glassell Park . |
|13||Newton Area||South Los Angeles , portions of Downtown and the Fashion District. |
The South Bureau oversees South Los Angeles with the exception of Inglewood  and Compton , which are both separate cities that maintain their own law enforcement agencies (in Compton's case, a contract with the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department ).  The South Bureau consists of four patrol divisions, Criminal Gang, Homicide Division and a traffic division, which handles traffic-related duties such as accident investigation and the issuing of citations/tickets. 
- 77th Street Division
The 77th Street Area (#12) serves a portion of South Los Angeles , roughly in an area south of Vernon Avenue, west of the Harbor Freeway , north of Manchester Avenue and points west to the city limits, including the Crenshaw region. A section of South Central Los Angeles that borders Florence, Central and Manchester Avenues to the Harbor Freeway is also part of this division. The division's address is 7600 S. Broadway, Los Angeles, CA 90003. The division also has a Junior Cadets program separate from the cadet program. The junior cadets age range is between 9 and 13 and after age 13 they can join the Cadets. The junior cadets program is exclusive to the 77th street division. 
- Harbor Division
The Harbor Area (#5) serves all of San Pedro , Wilmington and the Harbor Gateway annex south of Artesia Boulevard. This division often works with the Port of Los Angeles Police .  The 260 Harbor division members operate out of a $40-million, 50,000-square-foot (4,600 m 2 ) police station, that was opened in April 2009 on John S. Gibson Blvd. 
- Southeast Division
The Southeast Area (#18), like the 77th Street Division, patrols a part of South Los Angeles .  Their area extends to the city limits north of Artesia Boulevard, includes Watts , and areas south of Manchester Avenue . 
- Southwest Division
The Southwest Area (#3) serves all of the city limits south of the Santa Monica Freeway, west of the Harbor Freeway, north of Vernon Avenue, and east of the Culver City / Lennox / Baldwin Hills area.  This section also includes the University of Southern California and Exposition Park . 
The Valley Bureau is the largest of the four patrol bureaus in terms of size (about 221 square miles),  and oversees operations within the San Fernando Valley .  It consists of seven patrol divisions and a traffic division, which handles traffic-related duties such as accident investigation and the issuing of citations/tickets.
- Mission Division
The Mission Area (#19) community police station began operations in May 2005. This was the first new station to be created in more than a quarter of a century. The Mission Area covers the eastern half of the old Devonshire and the western half of the Foothill Divisions in the San Fernando Valley , including Mission Hills and Panorama City . 
- Devonshire Division
- Foothill Division
- North Hollywood Division
- Van Nuys Division
- West Valley Division
- Topanga Division
The Topanga (#21) community police station began operations in January 2009.  It is responsible for parts of the San Fernando Valley that are within the city's 3rd Council District, including Woodland Hills and Canoga Park , where it is based. 
The West Bureau ' s operations cover most of the well-known areas of Los Angeles, including Hollywood , Westwood , the Hollywood Hills area, the UCLA campus and Venice .  This does not include Beverly Hills  and Santa Monica , which are separate cities from Los Angeles and maintain their own law enforcement agencies. The West Bureau consists of five patrol divisions and a traffic division, which handles traffic-related duties such as accident investigation and the issuing of citations and tickets. Traffic Divisions also conduct DUI enforcement through a DUI Task Force composed mostly of motorcycle or "motor" officers. In addition to this overt enforcement activity, the traffic detective bureau houses a Habitual Traffic Offender Unit (also known as an H2O detail), which conducts undercover surveillance of habitual DUI offenders and other criminals with suspended driver's licenses.
- Hollywood Division
- Wilshire Division
- Pacific Division
The Pacific Area (#14) community police station serves the southern portion of West Los Angeles , including Venice Beach , Venice and Playa del Rey . Some officers assigned to the Pacific Division are commonly assigned to work with the Los Angeles Airport Police at the Los Angeles International Airport .  Pacific Division was formerly known as "Venice Division".
- West Los Angeles Division
The West Los Angeles Area (#8) community police station serves the northern portion of the West Side .  Communities within its service area include Pacific Palisades , Century City , Brentwood , Westwood , West Los Angeles and Cheviot Hills . UCLA , which also has its own police department, and Twentieth Century Fox are both located there. 
- Olympic Division
The Olympic (#20) community police station opened its doors on January 4, 2009, with an open house on January 17. The Olympic Area will be a small section of the Hollywood Division, and is composed of areas from Rampart and Wilshire divisions.   It provides services to a 6.2-square-mile (16 km 2 ) area of the Mid-City region, including Koreatown and a section of the Miracle Mile , with a population of 200,000.  The 54,000-square-foot (5,000 m 2 ) station is located at the southeast corner of Vermont Avenue and Eleventh Street and houses 293 officers. The construction cost was $34 million.
Office of Special Operations
The Office of Special Operations is a new office that was created in 2010. Headed by an Assistant Chief, currently Assistant Chief Beatrice Girmala, and the Assistant to the Director, which is a Commander, the office comprises the Property Division, Security Services Division, Custody Services Division, the Detective Bureau, and the Counter Terrorism and Special Operations Bureau.
The Detective Bureau, which reports to the Director of the Office of Special Operations, consists of several divisions and sections responsible for investigating a variety of crimes. 
- Investigative Analysis Section
- Forensic Science Division (FSD) 
- Technical Investigation Division (TID) 
- Robbery-Homicide Division (RHD)
- Homicide Special Section (HSS)
- Robbery Special Section (RSS)
- Special Assault Section (SAS)
- Cold Case Special Section (CCSS)
- Special Investigation Section (SIS)
- Commercial Crimes Division
- Detective Support and Vice Division
- Juvenile Division
- Gang and Narcotics Division
Counter Terrorism and Special Operations Bureau
The Counter Terrorism and Special Operations Bureau provides the Los Angeles Police Department specialized tactical resources in support of operations during daily field activities, unusual occurrences and, especially, during serious disturbances and elevated terrorism threat conditions. 
Counter Terrorism and Special Operations Bureau was created from the merger of the Counter Terrorism and Criminal Intelligence Bureau with the Special Operations Bureau in 2010.
- Structure of the Counter Terrorism and Special Operations Bureau
- Major Crimes Division
- Emergency Services Division
- Air Support Division
- Emergency Operations Division
- Metropolitan Division
- A, B, C, and G Platoons: Crime Suppression
- D Platoon: Special Weapons and Tactics ( SWAT )
- E Platoon: Mounted Unit
- H Platoon: Municipal Executives Protection Detail
- K-9 Platoon: Canine Unit
- M Platoon: Administrative and Operations Planning
Office of Administrative Services
The Office of Administrative Services is a new office that was created in 2010. Headed by an Assistant Chief and the Assistant to the Director, which is a Commander, the office is divided into RACR, the Behavioral Science Services, Fiscal Operations Division, Administrative Services Bureau, and the Police Sciences and Training Bureau.
The RACR or Real-Time Analysis & Critical Response Division began operations in March 2006. The RACR is composed of the Department Operations Section, which includes the Department Operations Center Unit, Department Operations Support Unit and the Incident Command Post Unit; Detective Support Section and the Crime Analysis Section. 
Rank structure and insignia
|Senior ranks||Insignia||Notes |
|Chief of Police||Appointment made by the Mayor of Los Angeles, with majority approval of the Police Commission. Must have a college degree and 12 years in law enforcement.|
| Assistant Chief |
(Police Deputy Chief II)
|Eligible to be appointed to Deputy Chief I after at least one years service as a Commander.|
|Police Deputy Chief I|
|Police Commander||Eligibility for rank promotion achieved after completion of required probationary periods.|
| Police Captain III |
Police Captain II
Police Captain I
| Police Lieutenant II |
Police Lieutenant I
|Insignia are worn as metal pins on the collars of a shirt and as shoulder marks on a jacket.|
|Police officers||Insignia||Detectives||Insignia||Notes |
|Police Sergeant II||Police Detective III||At least two years service as Sergeant or Detective before eligibility for promotion to Lieutenant I.|
|Police Sergeant I||Police Detective II||Promotion based on panel interview/departmental assessment.|
|Police Detective I|
|Police Officer III ‡||At least four years service as a Police Officer before becoming eligible for promotion to Sergeant I or Detective I (which requires an additional examination and interview).|
|Police Officer II||No insignia||At least three years service as a Police Officer before eligibility for promotion to Police Officer III|
|Police Officer I||Automatic promotion to Police Officer II upon satisfactory completion of an 18-month probationary assignment (6 months at the academy plus a 12-month field assessment).|
|Insignia are worn as embroidered chevrons on the upper sleeves of a shirt or jacket.|
|‡||Certain Police Officers III in special or hazard pay situations (Police Officer III+1s) are denoted by a Police Officer III insignia and star. These roles can include traffic follow-up investigators, canine training officers, SWAT platoon element leaders, and Senior Lead Officers who coordinate geographical areas. |
- Specialized unit insignia are worn at the top of the sleeve beneath the shoulder for officers assigned to the traffic divisions, and Air Support Division . Officers assigned to area patrol divisions have historically not worn any departmental shoulder patch.
- Service stripes are worn above the left cuff on a long-sleeved shirt. Each silver stripe represents five years of service in the LAPD.
The following names are used to describe supervision levels within the LAPD: 
|Staff Officer||Any rank above captain.|
|Commanding Officer||Any officer in charge of a bureau, a group, a geographical area, or a division.|
|Director||An officer commanding an Office of the LAPD.|
|Field Commander||Any officer who takes command at an emergency situation or who is in command at a planned special events.|
|Watch Commander||An officer in charge of a specific watch within a division or geographical area.|
|Supervisor||An officer engaged in field supervision or in general supervision of a section or unit.|
|Officer in Charge ‡||An officer in charge of a section, incident or unit.|
‡ As detectives are considered specialists within the LAPD, they are normally considered to be separate from the uniformed line of command. The senior-most detective is therefore permitted to take charge of an incident when it is necessary for investigative purposes, superseding the chain-of-command of other higher-ranking officers in attendance.  : 125
Chiefs of Police
Since 1876, there have been 56 appointed chiefs of the Los Angeles Police Department. William H. Parker was the longest serving police chief in Los Angeles Police Department history, serving for 16 years as Chief of LAPD. 
The Los Angeles Police Department has suffered from chronic underfunding and under-staffing in recent years.  Compared to most other major cities in the United States, and though it is the third largest police department in the country, Los Angeles has historically had one of the lowest ratios of police personnel to population served.  Former police chief William J. Bratton made enlarging the Department one of his top priorities (Bratton has been quoted as saying, "You give me 4,000 more officers and I'll give you the safest city in the world"). 
The Los Angeles Police Department has one officer for every 426 residents.  As a point of comparison, New York City has one NYPD officer for every 228 residents.  For Los Angeles to have the same ratio of officers to residents as New York City, the LAPD would need to have nearly 17,000 officers. Further points of comparison include Chicago, which has a ratio of one officer per 216 citizens and Philadelphia, whose officer per citizen ratio is 1 to 219.  The same ratio for London 's Metropolitan Police is 1 to 152, to make an international comparison.
In recent years, the department had been conducting a massive recruiting effort, with a goal of hiring an additional 1,500 police officers. The city has three specialized agencies, not affiliated with the LAPD directly, which serve the Port , the Airport , and the Unified School District .
Art Theft Detail
The LAPD's Art Theft Detail "is the only full-time municipal law enforcement unit in the United States devoted to the investigation of art crimes ."  The longtime head and often sole member of the unit is Detective Don Hrycyk, who in 2014 was described as being a 40-year veteran of the department with twenty years as the only known full-time art detective in the United States.   According to the LAPD, the unit has recovered over $121 million in stolen works since 1993.  
The Art Theft Detail is part of the Burglary Special Section of the Detective Bureau of the LAPD. 
The LAPD have their own version of the police explorer programs that are present in many police departments called the cadet program. The program was formerly called the explorer program but it was changed to the cadet program after the police commission broke off their partnership with the Boy scouts over their rules policy of barring gays, atheists and agnostics from being troop leaders.   In order to join the cadet program a person must be between the ages of 13 and 21, meet certain academic requirements, have no serious criminal record, meet several other requirements, and complete the cadet academy. 
The newer cadet program shifted focus from the old explorer program which tried to guide members to a career in law enforcement to a program that tries to give cadets a solid foundation in life and to help them prepare for whatever careers they choose by offering things like tutoring and college scholarships to different cadets in need of assistance.  The cadets complete courses not only on law enforcement but also on citizenship, leadership, financial literacy and other different skill sets.  Cadets work different positions including ride alongs, crowd control, charity assistance, working in stations, and other tasks.  The cadet program has posts at all of the LAPD's regional divisions as well as specialized divisions including the Metropolitan Division and the communications division and as of 2014 there were 5,000 cadets. 
Up to the Gates administration, the LAPD was predominantly white (80% in 1980), and many officers had resided outside the city limits.  Simi Valley , the Ventura County suburb that later became infamous as the site of the state trial that immediately preceded the 1992 Los Angeles riots , has long been home to a large concentration of LAPD officers, most of them white.  A 1994 ACLU study of officers' home zip codes, concluded that over 80% of police officers resided outside the city limits. 
Hiring quotas began to change this during the 1980s, but it was not until the Christopher Commission reforms that substantial numbers of black, Hispanic, and Asian officers began to be hired on to the force. Minority officers can be found in both rank-and-file and leadership positions in virtually all divisions, and the LAPD is starting to reflect the general population.
Through the 1950s, their duties generally consisted as working as matrons in the jail system, or dealing with troubled youths working in detective assignments.  Rarely did they work any type of field assignment and they were not allowed to promote above the rank of sergeant. 
A lawsuit by a policewoman, Fanchon Blake, from the 1980s instituted court ordered mandates that the department begin actively hiring and promoting women police officers in its ranks.  The department eliminated the rank of "Policeman" from new hires at that time along with the rank of "Policewoman."  Anyone already in those positions was grandfathered in, but new hires were classified instead as "Police Officers," which continues to this day.  In 2002, women made up 18.9% of the force.
In 1886, the department hired its first two black officers, Robert William Stewart and Roy Green..  The LAPD was one of the first two police departments in the country to hire an African-American woman officer, Georgia Ann Robinson in 1919.   Despite this, the department was slow at integration. During the 1965 Watts riots , only 5 of the 205 police assigned to South Central Los Angeles were black, despite the fact that it was the largest black community in Los Angeles. Los Angeles' first black mayor Tom Bradley was an ex-police officer and quit the department after being unable to advance past the rank of lieutenant like other black police officers in the department. When Bradley was elected mayor in 1972, only 5% of LAPD officers were black  and there was only one black captain in the department, Homer Broome. Broome would break down racial barriers on the force going on to become first black officer to obtain the rank of commander and the first black to command a police station, the Southwest Division which included historically black neighborhoods of South Central Los Angeles in 1975. 
According to the LAPD and Latin American Law Enforcement Association, in 2013, the Los Angeles Police Department was 81% male, 34.9% of the department was white , 43.6% of the department was Hispanic/Latino , 11.6% was African American , 7.2% was Asian , 2.2% was Filipino American , and 0.8% Indian and Other Ethnicities.  
The LAPD has grown over the years in the number of officers who speak languages in addition to English. There were 483 bilingual or multilingual officers in 1974, and 1,560 in 1998, and 2,500 in 2001 that spoke at least one of 32 languages.  In 2001, a study was released that found that non-English-speaking callers to the 911 and non-emergency response lines often receive no language translation, often receive incomplete information, and sometimes receive rude responses from police employees.  The issue of a lack of multilingual officers led to reforms including bonuses and salary increases for officers who are certified in second languages.  Currently, over a third of LAPD officers are certified in speaking one or more languages other than English.  The department also uses a device called the phraselator to translate and broadcast thousands of prerecorded phrases in a multitude of languages and is commonly used to broadcast messages in different languages from police vehicles. 
Work environment and pay
LAPD patrol officers have a three-day 12-hour and four-day 10-hour work week schedule. The department has over 250 types of job assignments, and each officer is eligible for such assignments after two years on patrol. LAPD patrol officers almost always work with a partner, unlike most suburban departments surrounding the city of Los Angeles, which deploy officers in one-officer units in order to maximize police presence and to allow a smaller number of officers to patrol a larger area.
The department's training division has three facilities throughout the city, including Elysian Park , Ahmanson Recruit Training Center (Westchester), and the Edward Davis Training Center (Granada Hills). 
From spring 2007 through the spring of 2009, new recruits could earn money through sign on bonuses ranging from $5,000 to $10,000. Those bonuses ended in 2009.   Sign on bonuses were paid 1/2 after graduation from the academy, and 1/2 after completion of probation.  Also, $2,000 could be added for sign ons from outside the Los Angeles area for housing arrangements.  As of July 2009, new recruits earned starting salaries of $56,522–$61,095 depending on education level, and began earning their full salary on their first day of academy training. 
In January 2010, the starting base salary for incoming police officers was lowered by 20%. At the time If the applicant had graduated from high school their starting salary would be $45,226, if they had at least 60 college units, with an overall GPA of 2.0 or better, their salary would start at $47,043, and if the applicant had fully completed a college degree, the salary would start at $48,880. In 2014 after negotiations between the city and the police officers union reached an agreement on police officer pay that would give pay increases to nearly 1,000 officers who joined the department since the salaries for incoming officers were cut.  The agreement also raised starting salaries for officers to $57,420 with an additional increase to $60,552 after 6 months which would become effective in the beginning of 2015.  The agreement would also change the current overtime payment system from a deferred payment system, which was implemented to cut costs, to a pay-as-you-go overtime system as well as increasing the overtime budget from $30 million to $70 million. 
Beginning in September 2013, the LAPD started a trial program for the use of body worn cameras with 30 officers in the Skid Row area.  Reports from the trial program indicated that the cameras functioned well and that they assisted in deescalating situations although there were some technical issues with the cameras along with slight issues with the cameras falling off of officers during movement.   In November 2014 in a sign of body camera purchases to come, the department chose Taser International as the vendor for body cameras to be used by the LAPD after their use in the trial program earlier in the year.   On December 16, 2014 Mayor Eric Garcetti announced that the city would purchase 7,000 body worn cameras from Taser for use by the department.  Patrol officers will be equipped with the cameras which will be purchased in the next fiscal year in order to outfit all patrol officers by the expected completion date in June 2016.  700 of the cameras will first be deployed to patrol officers in the Central, Mission and Newton patrol areas of the city beginning in January 2015.  $1.55 million was raised from private donors to start the body camera program for the initial rollout phase in order to ease budget constraints for the city with another $1 million coming from the National Institute of Justice , a branch of the Department of Justice .  In total, the body cameras will most likely cost less than $10 million and will be included in Garcetti's proposed fiscal year 2016 budget.  Before all of the cameras are deployed to patrol officers, the Police Commission will create a policy that governs the use of the cameras and video footage while consulting with department and city officials along with outside organizations including other departments who already use body cameras.  While the commission has not created a policy yet as of December 2014, several guidelines were already outlined by the Mayor including that officers would have to turn on the cameras whenever they arrest or detain someone for interrogation, but many public interactions such as domestic violence interviews would not be recorded.  The cameras may also be turned off in situations where police use deadly force.  Prior to the rollout of any body worn cameras, officers were able to carry personally owned audio recording devices starting in 1994 if they file an application and obtain the requisite permission.