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Fifth Force

Fifth Force

The fifth force is a physics term for a postulated, experimentally found, but not yet conclusively verified fifth fundamental force in the universe- represented currently by dark photons and by extrapolation -Dark Energy. [2]

Scientists have been puzzling for decades - why the universe appears to weigh more than predicted and not only is the universe expanding, but it's expansion appears to be accelerating.

[3]The answer points to dark matter, an invisible substance, still not clearly understand, thought to exist in various locations throughout the universe.

Dark matter, believed by physicists to outweigh all normal matter in the universe more than five to one, is by definition invisible.

But, scientists at MIT and elsewhere have developed a new tool for testing to see if dark matter is detectable.

An exotic particle, a "dark photon", resembling a photon, but with mass, has been proposed/'preliminarily verified' by some theorists/physicists to explain dark matter — whose existence can be inferred from the gravitational attraction exerted on ordinary matter, such as in the way galaxies rotate and aggregate together.


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Citation Linkeveripedia-storage.s3.amazonaws.comFifth Fundamental Force, Representing Something new or Dark Energy, Dark Photons.Source: http://futurism.com/may-the-fifth-force-be-with-you/
Jun 1, 2016, 10:37 PM
Citation Linksciencealert.comScienceAlert.com, "Physicists think they might have just detected a fifth force of nature", by Fiona MacDonald, 5/26/16: "Physicists in Hungary think they might have found evidence of a mysterious fifth force of nature.And, if verified, it would mean we'd need to rethink our understanding of how the Universe actually works.Starting from the larger end of the scale, gravity is responsible for holding together the planets and gravity, and electromagnetic force is in charge of keeping our molecules together."At the smallest level are the two other forces: the strong nuclear force is the glue for atomic nuclei, and the weak nuclear force helps some atoms go through radioactive decay," writes Ryan F. Mandelbaum for Popular Science."These forces seemed to explain the physics we can observe, more or less."Evidence of this fifth force was spotted last year, when a team from the Hungarian Academy of Science reported that they'd fired protons at lithium-7, and in the fall out, had detected a brand new super-light boson that was only 34 times heavier than an electron.Many scientists think there might be a particle out there called a 'dark photon', which could carry a new force that would explain dark matter - that invisible substance that makes up more than 80 percent of the Universe's mass.That's what the Hungarian team, led by physicist Attila Krasznahorkay, were looking for.To do that, they fired protons at thin targets of lithium-7, a collision that created unstable beryllium-8 nuclei, which then decayed into pairs of electrons and positrons."According to the standard model, physicists should see that the number of observed pairs drops as the angle separating the trajectory of the electron and positron increases," Edwin Cartlidge writes for Nature.But that wasn't what the team saw - at about 140 degrees, the number of these pairs jumped, creating a little bump before dropping off again at higher angles.This 'bump' was evidence of a new particle, according to Krasznahorkay and his team.They calculated that the mass of this new particle would be around 17 megaelectronvolts, which isn't what was expected for the 'dark photon', but could be evidence of something else entirely."
Jun 1, 2016, 11:18 PM
Citation Linkdailygalaxy.comDailyGalaxy.com, "The Dark 'Fifth Force' of the Universe -- It’s Totally Beyond Anything We Understand", by George Kanev, 5/26/16.
Jun 1, 2016, 9:56 PM
Citation Linknews.nationalgeographic.comNational Geographic, "Physics Nobel Explainer: Why Is Expanding Universe Accelerating?", by Victoria Jaggard, 10/5/11: New Nobel laureates Saul Perlmutter and Adam Riess of the U.S. and Brian Schmidt of Australia contributed to the discovery that the universe is not only expanding but also speeding up.The finding led to the now widely accepted theory of dark energy, a mysterious force that repels gravity.Measurements show that dark energy accounts for about 74 percent of the substance of the universe.But more than a decade after the Nobel-worthy find, scientists are still trying to pin down exactly what dark energy is and and thus solve what some experts call "the most profound problem" in modern physics.
Oct 2, 2016, 9:08 PM
Citation Linkeveripedia-storage.s3.amazonaws.comA Fifth Force in Nature (?) - Dark Energy?Four known forces include: 1) Gravity 2) Electromagnetism 3) Weak Nuclear 4) Strong Nuclear.Visit: http://futurism.com/may-the-fifth-force-be-with-you/
Oct 1, 2016, 7:26 PM