Everipedia Logo
Everipedia is now IQ.wiki - Join the IQ Brainlist and our Discord for early access to editing on the new platform and to participate in the beta testing.


An Italian chef preparing a truffle for diners

An Italian chef preparing a truffle for diners

Achef* is a trained professional cook who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation, often focusing on a particular cuisine. The word "chef" is derived from the term chef de cuisine (French pronunciation: [ʃɛf.də.kɥi.zin]), the director or head of a kitchen. Chefs can receive formal training from an institution, as well as by apprenticing with an experienced chef.

There are different terms that use the word chef in their titles, and deal with specific areas of food preparation, such as the sous-chef, who acts as the second-in-command in a kitchen, or the chef de partie, who handles a specific area of production, or “Television chef”, such as Alison Holst. The kitchen brigade system is a hierarchy found in restaurants and hotels employing extensive staff, many of which use the word "chef" in their titles. Underneath the chefs are the kitchen assistants. A chef's standard uniform includes a hat (called a toque), neckerchief, double-breasted jacket, apron and sturdy shoes (that may include steel or plastic toe-caps).

Culinary arts


The word "chef" is derived (and shortened) from the term chef de cuisine (French pronunciation: [ʃɛf.də.kɥi.zin]), the director or head of a kitchen. (The French word comes from Latin caput (head) and is a doublet with English "chief"). In English, the title "chef" in the culinary profession originated in the haute cuisine of the 19th century. The culinary arts, among other aspects of the French language introduced French loan-words into the English language.[1]


Ugandan chef at a large hotel.

Ugandan chef at a large hotel.

Chef preparing naan to be cooked in a tandoor.

Chef preparing naan to be cooked in a tandoor.

Various titles, detailed below, are given to those working in a professional kitchen and each can be considered a title for a type of chef.

Many of the titles are based on the brigade de cuisine (or brigade system) documented by Auguste Escoffier, while others have a more general meaning depending on the individual kitchen.

Chef de cuisine

Other names include executive chef, chef manager, head chef, and master chef. This person is in charge of all activities related to the kitchen, which usually includes menu creation, management of kitchen staff, ordering and purchasing of inventory, controlling raw material costs and plating design. Chef de cuisine is the traditional French term from which the English word chef is derived.[2] Head chef is often used to designate someone with the same duties as an executive chef, but there is usually someone in charge of a head chef, possibly making the larger executive decisions such as direction of menu, final authority in staff management decisions, and so on.[3] This is often the case for executive chefs with multiple restaurants. Involved in checking the sensory evaluation of dishes after preparation and they are well aware of each sensory property of those specific dishes.

In the UK, the title executive chef normally applies to hotels with multi outlets in the same hotel. Other establishments in the UK tend to use the title head chef.


The Sous-Chef de Cuisine (under-chef of the kitchen) is the second-in-command and direct assistant of the Chef de Cuisine. Sous chef works under executive chef or head chef. This person may be responsible for scheduling the kitchen staff, or substituting when the head chef is off-duty. Also, he or she will fill in for or assist the Chef de Partie (line cook) when needed. This person is accountable for the kitchen's inventory, cleanliness, organization, and the continuing training of its entire staff. A sous-chef's duties can also include carrying out the head chef's directives, conducting line checks, and overseeing the timely rotation of all food products. Smaller operations may not have a sous-chef, while larger operations may have more than one.[4] The sous chef is also responsible when the Executive Chef is absent.

Chef de partie

A chef de partie, also known as a "station chef" or "line cook",[5] is in charge of a particular area of production. In large kitchens, each chef de partie might have several cooks or assistants. In most kitchens, however, the chef de partie is the only worker in that department. Line cooks are often divided into a hierarchy of their own, starting with "first cook", then "second cook", and so on as needed.

Commis (Chef) / Range chef

A commis is a basic chef in larger kitchens who works under a chef de partie to learn the station's or range's responsibilities and operation.[6] This may be a chef who has recently completed formal culinary training or is still undergoing training.

Brigade system titles

Station-chef titles which are part of the brigade system include:[7]

Sauté chefsaucier[sosje]Responsible for allsautéeditems and theirsauce.This is usually the highest stratified position of all the stations.
Fish chefpoissonnier[pwasoɲe]Preparesfishdishes and often does all fishbutcheringas well as appropriate sauces.This station may be combined with the saucier position.
Roast chefrôtisseur[ʁotisœʁ]Preparesroastedandbraisedmeatsand their appropriate sauce.
Grill chefgrillardin[ɡʁijaʁdɛ̃]Prepares allgrilledfoods; this position may be combined with the rotisseur.
Fry cheffriturier[fʁityʁje]Prepares allfrieditems; this position may be combined with the rotisseur position.
Entrée preparerentremetier[ɑ̃tʁəmetje]Prepares hotappetizersand often prepares the soups, vegetables, pastas and starches.In smaller establishments, this station may also cover those tasks performed by the potager andlégumier.
Soup chefPotager[pɔtaʒe]Prepares soups in a full brigade system.In smaller establishments, this station may be handled by theentremetier.
Vegetable chefLégumier[legymje]Prepares vegetables in a full brigade system.In smaller establishments, this station may be handled by theentremetier.
Roundsmantournant[tuʁnɑ̃]Also referred to as a swing cook, fills in as needed on stations in the kitchen.
Pantry chefgarde manger[ɡaʁd mɑ̃ʒe]Responsible for preparing cold foods includingsalads, coldappetizers,pâtésand othercharcuterie
Butcherboucher[buʃe]Butchers meats,poultry, and sometimes fish.May also be responsible for breading meats and fish.
Pastry chefpâtissier[patisje]Makes baked goods such as pastries, cakes, breads and desserts.In larger establishments, thepastry chefoften supervises a separate team in their own kitchen.

Kitchen assistant

Kitchen assistants are of two types, kitchen-hands and stewards/ kitchen porters.

Kitchen-hands assist with basic food preparation tasks under the chef's direction.

They carry out relatively unskilled tasks such as peeling potatoes and washing salad.

Stewards/ kitchen porters are involved in the scullery, washing up and general cleaning duties.

In a smaller kitchen, these duties may be incorporated.

A communard is in charge of preparing the meal for the staff during a shift. This meal is often referred to as the staff or family meal.[6]

The escuelerie (from 15th century French and a cognate of the English "scullery"), or the more modern plongeur or dishwasher, is the keeper of dishes, having charge of dishes and keeping the kitchen clean. A common humorous title for this role in some modern kitchens is "chef de plonge" or "head dishwasher".[8]

Culinary education

Chefs in training at chef school in Oxford, England

Chefs in training at chef school in Oxford, England

Culinary education is available from many institutions offering diploma, associate, and bachelor's degree programs in culinary arts.

Depending on the level of education, this can take one to four years.

An internship is often part of the curriculum.

Regardless of the education received, most professional kitchens follow the apprenticeship system, and most new cooks will start at a lower-level 2nd or 1st cook position and work their way up.

The training period for a chef is generally four years as an apprentice.

A newly qualified chef is advanced or more commonly a torquecommis-chef, consisting of first-year commis, second-year commis, and so on. The rate of pay is usually in accordance with the chefs. Like all other chefs except the executive-chef, trainees are placed in sections of the kitchen (e.g., the starter (appetizer) or entrée sections) under the guidance of a demi-chef de partie and are given relatively basic tasks. Ideally, over time, a commis will spend a certain period in each section of the kitchen to learn the basics. Unaided, a commis may work on the vegetable station of a kitchen.[9]

The usual formal training period for a chef is two to four years in catering college.

They often spend the summer in work placements.

In some cases this is modified to 'day-release' courses; a chef will work full-time in a kitchen as an apprentice and then would have allocated days off to attend catering college.

These courses can last between one and three years.

In the UK, most Chefs are trained in the work place, with most doing a formal NVQ level 2 or 3 in the work place.


Chefs in Mexico wearing standard uniform.

Chefs in Mexico wearing standard uniform.

French chef painted by Théodule Ribot (1823–1891)

French chef painted by Théodule Ribot (1823–1891)

The standard uniform for a chef includes a hat called a toque, necktie, double-breasted jacket, apron and shoes with steel or plastic toe-caps. A chef's hat was originally designed as a tall rippled hat called a Dodin Bouffant or more commonly a toque. The Dodin Bouffant had 101 ripples that represent the 101 ways that the chef could prepare eggs. The modern chef's hat is tall to allow for the circulation of air above the head and also provides an outlet for heat. The hat helps to prevent sweat from dripping down the face and hair shedding on food.

Neckties were originally worn to allow for the mopping of sweat from the face, but as this is now against health regulations, they are largely decorative.

The chef's neck tie was originally worn on the inside of the jacket to stop sweat running from the face and neck down the body.[10] The jacket is usually white to show off the chef's cleanliness and repel heat, and is double-breasted to prevent serious injuries from burns and scalds.

The double breast also serves to conceal stains on the jacket as one side can be rebuttoned over the other, which is common practice.

An apron is worn to just below knee-length, also to assist in the prevention of burns because of spillage.

If hot liquid is spilled onto it, the apron can be quickly removed to minimize burns and scalds.

Shoes and clogs are hard-wearing and with a steel-top cap to prevent injury from falling objects or knives.

According to some hygiene regulations, jewelry is not allowed apart from wedding bands and religious jewelry.

If wound dressings are required they should be blue—an unusual colour for foodstuffs—so that they are noticeable if they fall into food.

Facial hair and longer hair are often required to be netted, or trimmed, for food safety.

Bandages on the hands are usually covered with nylon gloves. Latex is not typically used for food preparation due to latex allergy.

See also

  • American Culinary Federation

  • Auguste Escoffier

  • Brigade de cuisine

  • Culinary art

  • Celebrity chef

  • Development chef

  • List of chefs

  • List of pastry chefs

  • List of restaurant terminology

  • Personal chef

  • World Association of Chefs Societies


Citation Linkwww.nottingham.ac.ukRoth, Isabel. "Innervate" (PDF). The University of Nottingham School of English Studies. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
Sep 29, 2019, 5:55 PM
Citation Linkdictionary.reference.com"the definition of chef-de-cuisine". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2016-01-30.
Sep 29, 2019, 5:55 PM
Citation Linkwww.culinaryschools.orgLowry, Brad. "Types of Chefs: Executive Chef, Sous Chef & Celebrity Chefs – Who's Who in the Kitchen?". www.culinaryschools.org. Retrieved 2016-01-30.
Sep 29, 2019, 5:55 PM
Citation Linkopenlibrary.orgThe Culinary Institute of America (2011). The Professional Chef (9th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-42135-2. OCLC 707248142.. p. 8.
Sep 29, 2019, 5:55 PM
Citation Linkwww.sfgate.comSophie Brickman (September 12, 2010). "How French Laundry's chefs reach for the stars". San Francisco Chronicle.
Sep 29, 2019, 5:55 PM
Citation Linkopenlibrary.org. p. 9.
Sep 29, 2019, 5:55 PM
Citation Linkopenlibrary.org. pp. 8–9.
Sep 29, 2019, 5:55 PM
Citation Linkwww.caterersearch.comAmanda Afiya (4 August 2011). "Chef Revelations – Kevin Gratton". Caterer & Hotelkeeper. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
Sep 29, 2019, 5:55 PM
Citation Linkkitchenwarrior.co.ukkitchenwarrior.co.uk - chef training options
Sep 29, 2019, 5:55 PM
Citation Linkwww.chefolio.comSockrider, Guy David (July 27, 2005). "History of the Chefs Uniform". Chefolio. Pflugerville, Texas: Escoffier Media. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
Sep 29, 2019, 5:55 PM
Citation Linkwww.wineloverspage.com"Wine Miracles by the Bucket"
Sep 29, 2019, 5:55 PM
Citation Linkwww.acfchefs.orgOfficial certification levels of the American Culinary Federation
Sep 29, 2019, 5:55 PM
Citation Linkwww.careers.govt.nzChef training and career progression in New Zealand
Sep 29, 2019, 5:55 PM
Citation Linkwww.worldcat.org707248142
Sep 29, 2019, 5:55 PM
Citation Linken.wikipedia.orgThe original version of this page is from Wikipedia, you can edit the page right here on Everipedia.Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.Additional terms may apply.See everipedia.org/everipedia-termsfor further details.Images/media credited individually (click the icon for details).
Sep 29, 2019, 5:55 PM