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United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (in case citations, 9th Cir.) is a court of appeal that has appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:

  • District of Alaska

  • District of Arizona

  • Central District of California

  • Eastern District of California

  • Northern District of California

  • Southern District of California

  • District of Hawaii

  • District of Idaho

  • District of Montana

  • District of Nevada

  • District of Oregon

  • Eastern District of Washington

  • Western District of Washington

It also has appellate jurisdiction over the following territorial courts:

  • District of Guam

  • District of the Northern Mariana Islands

Headquartered in San Francisco, California, the Ninth Circuit is by far the largest of the thirteen courts of appeals, with 29 active judgeships. The court's regular meeting places are Seattle at the William Kenzo Nakamura United States Courthouse, Portland at the Pioneer Courthouse, San Francisco at the James R. Browning U.S. Court of Appeals Building, and Pasadena at the Richard H. Chambers U.S. Court of Appeals.

Panels of the court occasionally travel to hear cases in other locations within the circuit. Although the judges travel around the circuit, the court arranges its hearings so that cases from the northern region of the circuit are heard in Seattle or Portland, cases from southern California are heard in Pasadena, and cases from northern California, Nevada, Arizona, and Hawaii are heard in San Francisco. For lawyers who must come and present their cases to the court in person, this administrative grouping of cases helps to reduce the time and cost of travel.

United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
(9th Cir.)
9th Circuit map.svg
LocationJames R. Browning U.S. Court of Appeals Building
More locations
  • William Kenzo Nakamura U.S. Courthouse
    (Seattle, Washington)
  • Pioneer Courthouse
    (Portland, Oregon)
  • Richard H. Chambers U.S. Court of Appeals
    (Pasadena, California)
Appeals from
  • District of Alaska
  • District of Arizona
  • Central District of California
  • Eastern District of California
  • Northern District of California
  • Southern District of California
  • District of Hawaii
  • District of Idaho
  • District of Montana
  • District of Nevada
  • District of Oregon
  • Eastern District of Washington
  • Western District of Washington
  • District of Guam
  • District of the Northern Mariana Islands
EstablishedMarch 3, 1891
Circuit JusticeElena Kagan
Chief JudgeSidney R. Thomas
www.ca9.uscourts.gov [35]


Ninth Circuit Court House in 1905

Ninth Circuit Court House in 1905

The Richard H. Chambers U.S. Court of Appeals, Pasadena, California

The Richard H. Chambers U.S. Court of Appeals, Pasadena, California

YearJurisdictionTotal populationPop. as % of nat'l pop.Number of active judgeships
1891California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington2,087,0003.3%2
1900Territory of Hawaii added2,798,0003.7%3
1912Arizona added7,415,0006.7%3
1960Alaska and Guam added22,607,00012.6%9
1980Northern Mariana Islands added37,170,00016.4%23

The large size of the current court is because both the population of the western states and the geographic jurisdiction of the Ninth Circuit have increased dramatically since the U.S. Congress created the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in 1891.[2] The court was originally granted appellate jurisdiction over federal district courts in California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. As new states and territories were added to the federal judicial hierarchy in the twentieth century, many of those in the West were placed in the Ninth Circuit: the newly acquired Territory of Hawaii in 1900, Arizona upon its admission to the Union in 1912, the Territory of Alaska in 1948, Guam in 1951, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in 1977.

The Ninth Circuit also had jurisdiction over certain American interests in China, in that it had jurisdiction over appeals from the United States Court for China during the existence of that court from 1906 through 1943.[3][1]

However, the Philippines were never under the Ninth Circuit's jurisdiction. Congress never created a federal district court in the Philippines from which the Ninth Circuit could hear appeals. Instead, appeals from the Supreme Court of the Philippines were taken directly to the Supreme Court of the United States.[4]

In 1979, the Ninth Circuit became the first federal judicial circuit to set up a Bankruptcy Appellate Panel as authorized by the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978.

The cultural and political jurisdiction of the Ninth Circuit is just as varied as the land within its geographical borders. In a dissenting opinion in a rights of publicity case involving the Wheel of Fortune star Vanna White, Circuit Judge Alex Kozinski sardonically noted that "[f]or better or worse, we are the Court of Appeals for the Hollywood Circuit."[5] Judges from more remote parts of the circuit note the contrast between legal issues confronted by populous states such as California and those confronted by rural states such as Alaska, Idaho, Montana, and Nevada.

Judge Andrew J. Kleinfeld, who maintains his judicial chambers in Fairbanks, Alaska, wrote in a letter in 1998: "Much federal law is not national in scope....It is easy to make a mistake construing these laws when unfamiliar with them, as we often are, or not interpreting them regularly, as we never do."[6]


Rate of overturned decisions

Some argue the court's rulings are reversed by the Supreme Court at a higher rate than other courts. For example, in 2018 President Trump claimed that the Ninth Circuit "is overturned more than any Circuit in the Country, 79%."[7]

From 1999 to 2008, of the 0.151% of Ninth Circuit Court rulings that were reviewed by the Supreme Court, 20% were affirmed, 19% were vacated, and 61% were reversed; the median reversal rate for all federal appellate courts was 68.29% for the same period.[8] From 2010 to 2015, of the cases it accepted to review, the Supreme Court reversed around 79% of the cases from the Ninth Circuit, ranking its reversal rate third among the circuits; the median reversal rate for all federal circuits for the same time period was around 70 percent.[9]

Some argue the court's high percentage of reversals is illusory, resulting from the circuit hearing more cases than the other circuits. This results in the Supreme Court reviewing a smaller proportion of its cases, letting stand the vast majority of its cases.[10][11]

However, a detailed study in 2018 reported by Brian T. Fitzpatrick, a law professor at Vanderbilt University, looked at how often a federal circuit court was reversed for every thousand cases it terminated on the merits between 1994 and 2015.[12] The study found that the Ninth Circuit's decisions were reversed at a rate of 2.50 cases per thousand, which was by far the highest rate in the country, with the Sixth Circuit second as 1.73 cases per thousand.[13][12] Fitzgerald also noted that the 9th Circuit was unanimously reversed more than three times as often as the least reversed circuits and over 20% more often than the next closest circuit.[12]

Size of the court

Former Chief Judges Mary M. Schroeder and Procter Ralph Hug Jr.

Former Chief Judges Mary M. Schroeder and Procter Ralph Hug Jr.

Some argue that the Ninth Circuit faces several adverse consequences of its large size.[14]

Chief among these is the Ninth Circuit's unique rules concerning the composition of an en banc court. In other circuits, en banc courts are composed of all active circuit judges, plus (depending on the rules of the particular court) any senior judges who took part in the original panel decision. By contrast, in the Ninth Circuit it is impractical for 29 or more judges to take part in a single oral argument and deliberate on a decision en masse. The court thus provides for a limited en banc review by the Chief Judge and a panel of 10 randomly selected judges[15]. This means that en banc reviews may not actually reflect the views of the majority of the court and indeed may not include any of the three judges involved in the decision being reviewed in the first place. The result, according to detractors, is a high risk of intracircuit conflicts of law where different groupings of judges end up delivering contradictory opinions. That is said to cause uncertainty in the district courts and within the bar. However, en banc review is a relatively rare occurrence in all circuits and Ninth Circuit rules provide for full en banc review in limited circumstances.[16]

All recently proposed splits would leave at least one circuit with 21 judges, only two fewer than the 23 that the Ninth Circuit had when the limited en banc procedure was first adopted. In other words, after a split at least one of the circuits would still be using limited en banc courts.[17]

In March 2007, Associate Justices Anthony Kennedy and Clarence Thomas testified before a House Appropriations subcommittee that the consensus among the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States was that the Ninth Circuit was too large and unwieldy and should be split.[18]

Congressional officials, legislative commissions, and interest groups have all submitted proposals to divide the Ninth Circuit such as:

  • Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals Reorganization Act of 1993, H.R. 3654[19]

  • Final Report of the Commission on Structural Alternatives for the Federal Courts of Appeals[20]

  • Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals of Reorganization Act of 2003, S. 562

  • Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals Judgeship and Reorganization Act of 2003, H.R. 2723

  • Ninth Circuit Judgeship and Reorganization Act of 2004, S. 878 (reintroduced as the Ninth Circuit Judgeship and Reorganization Act of 2005, H.R. 211, and co-sponsored by House Majority Leader Tom DeLay)

  • Circuit Court of Appeals Restructuring and Modernization Act of 2005, S. 1845[21]

  • Circuit Court of Appeals Restructuring and Modernization Act of 2007, S. 525[22]

Current composition of the court

As of July 26, 2019:

TitleJudgeDuty stationBornTerm of serviceAppointed by
74Chief JudgeSidney R. ThomasBillings, MT19531996–present2014–presentClinton
76Circuit JudgeSusan P. GraberPortland, OR19491998–presentClinton
77Circuit JudgeM. Margaret McKeownSan Diego, CA19511998–presentClinton
78Circuit JudgeKim McLane WardlawPasadena, CA19541998–presentClinton
79Circuit JudgeWilliam A. FletcherSan Francisco, CA19451998–presentClinton
81Circuit JudgeRonald M. GouldSeattle, WA19461999–presentClinton
82Circuit JudgeRichard PaezPasadena, CA19472000–presentClinton
83Circuit JudgeMarsha S. BerzonSan Francisco, CA19452000–presentClinton
85Circuit JudgeJohnnie B. RawlinsonLas Vegas, NV19522000–presentClinton
87Circuit JudgeJay BybeeLas Vegas, NV19532003–presentG.W. Bush
88Circuit JudgeConsuelo CallahanSacramento, CA19502003–presentG.W. Bush
89Circuit JudgeCarlos BeaSan Francisco, CA19342003–presentG.W. Bush
90Circuit JudgeMilan SmithEl Segundo, CA19422006–presentG.W. Bush
91Circuit JudgeSandra Segal IkutaPasadena, CA19542006–presentG.W. Bush
93Circuit JudgeMary H. MurguiaPhoenix, AZ19602011–presentObama
94Circuit JudgeMorgan ChristenAnchorage, AK19612012–presentObama
95Circuit JudgeJacqueline NguyenPasadena, CA19652012–presentObama
96Circuit JudgePaul J. WatfordPasadena, CA19672012–presentObama
97Circuit JudgeAndrew D. HurwitzPhoenix, AZ19472012–presentObama
98Circuit JudgeJohn B. OwensSan Diego, CA19712014–presentObama
99Circuit JudgeMichelle FriedlandSan Jose, CA19722014–presentObama
100Circuit JudgeMark J. BennettHonolulu, HI19532018–presentTrump
101Circuit JudgeRyan D. NelsonIdaho Falls, ID19732018–presentTrump
102Circuit JudgeEric D. MillerSeattle, WA19752019–presentTrump
103Circuit JudgeBridget Shelton BadePhoenix, AZ19652019–presentTrump
104Circuit JudgeDaniel P. CollinsPasadena, CA19632019–presentTrump
105Circuit JudgeKenneth K. LeeSan Diego, CA19752019–presentTrump
106Circuit JudgeDaniel Aaron BressSan Francisco, CA19792019–presentTrump
107Circuit Judgevacant
38Senior Circuit JudgeAlfred GoodwinPasadena, CA19231971–19911988–19911991–presentNixon
39Senior Circuit JudgeJohn Clifford WallaceSan Diego, CA19281972–19961991–19961996–presentNixon
46Senior Circuit JudgeMary M. SchroederPhoenix, AZ19401979–20112000–20072011–presentCarter
48Senior Circuit JudgeJoseph Jerome FarrisSeattle, WA19301979–19951995–presentCarter
53Senior Circuit JudgeDorothy Wright NelsonPasadena, CA19281979–19951995–presentCarter
54Senior Circuit JudgeWilliam CanbyPhoenix, AZ19311980–19961996–presentCarter
65Senior Circuit JudgeDiarmuid O'ScannlainPortland, OR19371986–20162016–presentReagan
66Senior Circuit JudgeEdward LeavyPortland, OR19291987–19971997–presentReagan
67Senior Circuit JudgeStephen S. TrottBoise, ID19391988–20042005–presentReagan
68Senior Circuit JudgeFerdinand FernandezPasadena, CA19371989–20022002–presentG.H.W. Bush
71Senior Circuit JudgeAndrew KleinfeldFairbanks, AK19451991–20102010–presentG.H.W. Bush
72Senior Circuit JudgeMichael Daly HawkinsPhoenix, AZ19451994–20102010–presentClinton
73Senior Circuit JudgeA. Wallace TashimaPasadena, CA19341996–20042004–presentClinton
75Senior Circuit JudgeBarry G. SilvermanPhoenix, AZ19511998–20162016–presentClinton
80Senior Circuit JudgeRaymond C. FisherPasadena, CA19391999–20132013–presentClinton
84Senior Circuit JudgeRichard C. TallmanCoeur d'Alene, ID19532000–20182018–presentClinton
86Senior Circuit JudgeRichard CliftonHonolulu, HI19502002–20162016–presentG.W. Bush
92Senior Circuit JudgeN. Randy SmithPocatello, ID19492007–20182018–presentG.W. Bush

Vacancies and pending nominations

SeatPrior Judge's Duty StationSeat last held byVacancy reasonDate of vacancyNomineeDate of nomination
10Portland, ORDiarmuid O'ScannlainSenior statusDecember 31, 2016Danielle J. HunsakerSeptember 19, 2019
6Las Vegas, NVJay BybeeDecember 31, 2019[23]Lawrence VanDyke
25San Francisco, CACarlos BeaTBD[24]Patrick J. Bumatay

List of former judges

JudgeStateBorn–diedActive serviceChief JudgeSenior statusAppointed byReason for
1Lorenzo SawyerCA1820–18911891–1891Grant[25]death
2Joseph McKennaCA1843–19261892–1897B. Harrisonresignation
3William Ball GilbertOR1847–19311892–1931B. Harrisondeath
4Erskine Mayo RossCA1845–19281895–19251925–1928Clevelanddeath
5William W. MorrowCA1843–19291897–1923McKinleyresignation
William Henry HuntMT1857–19491911–19281928–1928[26]resignation
6Frank H. RudkinWA1864–19311923–1931Hardingdeath
7Wallace McCamantOR1867–19441925[27]–1926Coolidgenot confirmed
8Frank Sigel DietrichID1863–19301927–1930Coolidgedeath
9Curtis D. WilburCA1867–19541929–19451945–1954Hoover[28]death
10William Henry SawtelleAZ1868–19341931–1934Hooverdeath
11Francis Arthur GarrechtWA1870–19481933–1948F. Rooseveltdeath
12William DenmanCA1872–19591935–19571948–19571957–1959F. Rooseveltdeath
13Clifton MathewsAZ1880–19621935–19531953–1962F. Rooseveltdeath
14Bert E. HaneyOR1879–19431935–1943F. Rooseveltdeath
15Albert Lee Stephens Sr.CA1874–19651937–19611957–19591961–1965F. Rooseveltdeath
16William HealyID1881–19621937–19581958–1962F. Rooseveltdeath
17Homer BoneWA1883–19701944–19561956–1970F. Rooseveltdeath
18William Edwin OrrNV1881–19651945–19561956–1965Trumandeath
19Walter Lyndon PopeMT1889–19691949–196119591961–1969Trumandeath
20Dal Millington LemmonCA1887–19581954–1958Eisenhowerdeath
21Richard Harvey ChambersAZ1906–19941954–19761959–19761976–1994Eisenhowerdeath
22James Alger FeeOR1888–19591954–1959Eisenhowerdeath
23Stanley BarnesCA1900–19901956–19701970–1990Eisenhowerdeath
24Frederick George HamleyWA1903–19751956–19711971–1975Eisenhowerdeath
25Oliver Deveta Hamlin Jr.CA1892–19731958–19631963–1973Eisenhowerdeath
26Gilbert H. JertbergCA1897–19731958–19671967–1973Eisenhowerdeath
27Charles Merton MerrillNV1907–19961959–19741974–1996Eisenhowerdeath
28Montgomery Oliver KoelschID1912–19921959–19761976–1992Eisenhowerdeath
29James R. BrowningCA1918–20121961–20001976–19882000–2012Kennedydeath
30Benjamin C. DuniwayCA1907–19861961–19761976–1986Kennedydeath
31Walter Raleigh Ely Jr.CA1913–19841964–19791979–1984L. Johnsondeath
32James Marshall CarterCA1904–19791967–19711971–1979L. Johnsondeath
33Shirley HufstedlerCA1925–20161968–1979L. Johnsonresignation
34Eugene Allen WrightWA1913–20021969–19831983–2002Nixondeath
35John KilkennyOR1901–19951969–19711971–1995Nixondeath
36Ozell Miller TraskAZ1909–19841971–1984Nixondeath
37Herbert ChoyHI1916–20041971–19841984–2004Nixondeath
40Joseph Tyree Sneed IIICA1920–20081973–19871987–2008Nixondeath
41Anthony KennedyCA1936–present1975–1988Fordelevation to Supreme Court
42J. Blaine AndersonID1922–19881976–1988Forddeath
43Procter Ralph Hug Jr.NV1931–present1977–20021996–20002002–2017Carterretirement
44Thomas TangAZ1922–19951977–19931993–1995Carterdeath
45Betty Binns FletcherWA1923–20121979–19981998–2012Carterdeath
47Otto Richard Skopil Jr.OR1919–20121979–19861986–2012Carterdeath
49Arthur Lawrence AlarconCA1925–20151979–19921992–2015Carterdeath
50Harry PregersonCA1923–20171979–20152015–2017Carterdeath
51Warren J. FergusonCA1920–20081979–19861986–2008Carterdeath
52Cecil F. PooleCA1914–19971979–19961996–1997Carterdeath
55Robert BoocheverAK1917–20111980–19861986–2011Carterdeath
56William Albert NorrisCA1927–20171980–19941994–1997Carterretirement
57Stephen ReinhardtCA1931–20181980–2018Carterdeath
58Robert R. BeezerWA1928–20121984–19961996–2012Reagandeath
59Cynthia Holcomb HallCA1929–20111984–19971997–2011Reagandeath
60Charles E. WigginsCA1927–20001984–19961996–2000Reagandeath
61Melvin T. BrunettiNV1933–20091985–19991999–2009Reagandeath
62Alex KozinskiCA1950–present1985–20172007–2014Reaganretirement
63John T. Noonan Jr.CA1926–20171985–19961996–2017Reagandeath
64David R. ThompsonCA1930–20111985–19981998–2011Reagandeath
69Pamela Ann RymerCA1941–20111989–2011G.H.W. Bushdeath
70Thomas G. NelsonID1936–20111990–20032003–2011G.H.W. Bushdeath

Chief judges

Chief Judge
Stephens, Sr.1957–1959
Hug, Jr.1996–2000

Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, and preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice (i.e., the Supreme Court justice responsible for the circuit) is also on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is specifically nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, and have not previously served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The chief judge serves for a term of seven years or until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position.

When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not become or remain chief after turning 70 years old. The current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982.

Succession of seats

The court has 29 seats for active judges, numbered in the order in which they were filled. Judges who retire into senior status remain on the bench but leave their seat vacant. That seat is filled by the next circuit judge appointed by the president.

See also

  • Courts of California

  • Ninth Circuit appointment history

  • Juliana v. United States

  • List of current United States Circuit Judges

  • Same-sex marriage in the Ninth Circuit


Citation Linkopenlibrary.orgThe population of China is not included in the above chart for 1920 or 1940, since the Court for China lacked plenary jurisdiction over China's domestic population, then numbering about 430 million people; the court exercised only extraterritorial jurisdiction over the relatively small number of American citizens in China.
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkopenlibrary.orgFrederick, David C. (1994). Rugged justice: the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals and the American West, 1891–1941. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520083813.
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkopenlibrary.orgSee, e.g., Republic of China v. Merchants' Fire Ass'n of N.Y., 49 F.2d 862 (9th Cir. 1931). As the court noted, this bizarre insurance claim dispute arose directly from the "perplexing" civil war during China's warlord era, in which various groups of military officers claimed to be the representatives of the Republic's legitimate government.
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linksupreme.justia.comKepner v. United States, 195 U.S. 100 (1904).
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkopenlibrary.orgWhite v. Samsung Elec. Am., Inc., 989 F.2d 1512, 1521 (9th Cir. 1993) (Kozinski, J., dissenting).
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkwww.library.unt.eduKleinfeld, Andrew J. (1998-05-22). Memo to the Commission on Structural Alternatives for the Federal Courts of Appeals. URL Retrieved June 21, 2005.
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkwww.nytimes.comQiu, Linda (November 26, 2018). "Does the Ninth Circuit Have the Highest Reversal Rate in the Country?". New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkopenlibrary.orgLandslide, Volume 2, Number 3, January/February 2010 by the American Bar Association.
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkwww.politifact.comCarroll, Lauren (February 10, 2017). "No, the 9th Circuit isn't the 'most overturned court in the country,' as Hannity says". PolitiFact.
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkopenlibrary.orgFarris, Jerome, The Ninth Circuit—Most Maligned Circuit in the Country Fact or Fiction? 58 Ohio St. L.J. 1465 (1997) (noting that, in 1996, the Supreme Court let stand 99.7 percent of the Ninth Circuit's cases).
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkarticles.latimes.comCarol J. Williams (July 18, 2011). "U.S. Supreme Court again rejects most decisions by the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkwww.judiciary.senate.govFitzpatrick, Brian (July 31, 2018). "Written Testimony at Hearing on Oversight of the Structure of the Federal Courts" (PDF). United Ststes Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkwww.nytimes.comQiu, Linda (November 26, 2018). "Does the Ninth Circuit Have the Highest Reversal Rate in the Country?". New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkwww.fed-soc.orgO'Scannlain, Diarmuid (October 2005). "Ten Reasons Why the Ninth Circuit Should Be Split" (PDF). Engage. 6 (2): 58–64. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015. Retrieved May 29, 2006.
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkcdn.ca9.uscourts.govRule 35–3 http://cdn.ca9.uscourts.gov/datastore/uploads/rules/frap.pdf
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkjudiciary.house.gov"Statement of Circuit Judge Alex Kozinski to the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Courts". U.S. House of Representatives. October 21, 2003. Archived from the original on September 26, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkonline.wsj.comSchroeder, Mary M.; et al. (April 2006). "A Court United: A Statement of a Number of Ninth Circuit Judges" (PDF). Engage. 7 (1): 63–66. Retrieved June 6, 2006.
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkwww.c-spanvideo.org"America and the Courts," 48:28. C-SPAN, March 17, 2007.
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkwww.law.duke.eduGribbin, Eric J. "47 Duke L.J. 351" (PDF). law.duke.edu.
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM
Citation Linkopenlibrary.orgFinal Report, Commission on Structural Alternatives for the Federal Courts of Appeals, Dec. 18, 1998
Sep 29, 2019, 1:11 PM