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Qajar dynasty

Qajar dynasty

The Qajar dynasty (listen ; Persian: سلسله قاجار‎ Selsele-ye Qājār;[1]) was an Iranian[2] royal dynasty of Turkic origin,[3][4][5][6] specifically from the Qajar tribe, ruling over Iran from 1789 to 1925.[7][8] The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last Shah of the Zand dynasty, and re-asserted Iranian sovereignty over large parts of the Caucasus. In 1796, Mohammad Khan Qajar seized Mashhad with ease,[9] putting an end to the Afsharid dynasty, and Mohammad Khan was formally crowned as Shah after his punitive campaign against Iran's Georgian subjects.[10] In the Caucasus, the Qajar dynasty permanently lost many of Iran's integral areas[11] to the Russians over the course of the 19th century, comprising modern-day Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan and Armenia.[12]

Qajar dynasty
Parent houseQovanlu line of Qajars tribe
CountrySublime State of Persia
FounderAgha Mohammad Shah (1796–1797)
Current headSultan Mohammad Ali Mirza (since 2011)
Final rulerAhmad Shah (1909–1925)
TitlesShah of Iran

Qajar Shahs of Persia, 1796–1925

NamePortraitTitleBorn-DiedEntered officeLeft office
1Mohammad Khan QajarMohammad Khan Qajar.jpgKhan[13]
1742–1797March 1796[14]17 June 1797
2Fat′h-Ali Shah QajarFath Ali Shah(hermitage2).jpgShahanshah[13]
1772–183417 June 179723 October 1834
3Mohammad Shah QajarMohammadshah.jpgKhaqan son of Khaqan[13]1808–184823 October 18345 September 1848
4Naser al-Din Shah QajarNāser al-Dīn Schah.jpgZell'ollah (Shadow of God [on earth])[13]
Qebleh-ye 'ālam (Pivot of the Universe)[13]
Islampanah (Refuge of Islam)[13]
1831–18965 September 18481 May 1896
5Mozaffar ad-Din Shah QajarMozaffar-ed-Din Shah Qajar - 1.jpg1853–19071 May 18963 January 1907
6Mohammad Ali Shah QajarMohammad Ali Shah.jpg1872–19253 January 190716 July 1909
7Ahmad Shah QajarAhmadShahQajar2.jpgSultan1898–193016 July 190931 October 1925

Qajar imperial family

The Qajar Imperial Family in exile is currently headed by the eldest descendant of Mohammad Ali Shah, Soltan Mohammad Ali Mirza Qajar, while the Heir Presumptive to the Qajar throne is Mohammad Hassan Mirza II, the grandson of Mohammad Hassan Mirza, Soltan Ahmad Shah's brother and heir. Mohammad Hassan Mirza died in England in 1943, having proclaimed himself shah in exile in 1930 after the death of his brother in France.

Today, the descendants of the Qajars often identify themselves as such and hold reunions to stay socially acquainted through the Kadjar (Qajar) Family Association,[15] often coinciding with the annual conferences and meetings of the International Qajar Studies Association (IQSA). The Kadjar (Qajar) Family Association was founded for a third time in 2000. Two earlier family associations were stopped because of political pressure. The offices and archives of IQSA are housed at the International Museum for Family History in Eijsden.

Titles and styles

The shah and his consort were styled Imperial Majesty. Their children were addressed as Imperial Highness, while male-line grandchildren were entitled to the lower style of Highness; all of them bore the title of Shahzadeh or Shahzadeh Khanoum.[16]

Qajar dynasty since 1925

Heads of the Qajar Imperial Family

The headship of the Imperial Family is inherited by the eldest male descendant of Mohammad Ali Shah.

  • Sultan Ahmad Shah Qajar (1925–1930)

  • Fereydoun Mirza (1930–1975)

  • Sultan Hamid Mirza (1975–1988)

  • Sultan Mahmoud Mirza (1988)

  • Sultan Ali Mirza Qajar (1988–2011)

  • Sultan Mohammad Ali Mirza (2011–present)

Heirs Presumptive of the Qajar dynasty

The Heir Presumptive is the Qajar heir to the Persian throne.

  • Sultan Ahmad Shah Qajar (1925–1930)

  • Mohammad Hassan Mirza (1930–1943)

  • Fereydoun Mirza (1943–1975)

  • Sultan Hamid Mirza (1975–1988)

  • Mohammad Hassan Mirza II (1988–1996)

  • Shahzade Arian J. Salari I (1986–Present)

Notable members

Bahram Mirza

Bahram Mirza

Feyzullah Mirza Qajar

Feyzullah Mirza Qajar

  • Prince Abdol-Hossein Farmanfarma (1859–1939), prime minister of Iran

  • Mohammad Mosaddegh, prime minister of Iran and nephew of Prince Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma.

  • Prince Firouz Nosrat-ed-Dowleh III (1889–1937), son of Prince Abdol-Hossein Farmanfarma, foreign minister of Iran

  • Hossein Khan Sardar (1740–1830), last ruler of the Erivan Khanate administrative division

  • Amir Abbas Hoveyda, Iranian economist and politician, prime minister of Iran from 1965 to 1977, a Qajar descendant on his maternal side

  • Ali Amini, prime minister of Iran

  • Prince Iraj Eskandari, Iranian communist politician

  • Princess Maryam Farman Farmaian (b. 1914–d. 2008) Iranian communist politician, founder of the women's section of the Tudeh Party of Iran

  • Ardeshir Zahedi (b. 1928–) Iranian diplomat, qajar descendant on his maternal side.

  • Prince Sabbar Farmanfarmaian, health minister in Mosaddeq cabinet

  • Abdol-Hossein Sardari (1895–1981), Consul General at the Iranian Embassy in Paris 1940–1945; helped and saved the lives of Jews in danger of deportation by issuing them with Iranian passports. A Qajar Qovanlou and through his mother a grandson of Princess Malekzadeh Khanoum Ezzat od-Doleh, the sister of Nasser ed-Din Shah.

  • Aga Khan III (1877–1957), President of the League of Nations from 1937-38, one of the founders and the first president of the All-India Muslim League and the 48th Imam of the Nizari Ismaili Muslims.

  • Prince Amanullah Mirza Qajar, Imperial Russian, Azerbaijani, and Iranian military commander

  • Prince Feyzulla Mirza Qajar, Imperial Russian and Azerbaijani (ADR) military commander

  • Prince Aleksander Reza Qoli Mirza Qajar, Imperial Russian military leader, commander of Yekaterinburg (1918)

  • Prince Amanullah Jahanbani, senior Iranian general

  • Nader Jahanbani, general and vice-deputy chief of the Imperial Iranian Air Force

Social work
  • Princess Sattareh Farmanfarmaian, Iranian social work pioneer

  • Princess Fakhr-ol-dowleh


  • Aga Khan IV (1936–), the 49th and current Imam of Nizari Ismailism, a denomination of Isma'ilism within Shia Islam.

Women's rights
  • Princess Mohtaram Eskandari, intellectual and pioneering figures in Iranian women's movement.[17]

  • Dr. Iran Teymourtash (Légion d'honneur) (1914–1991), journalist, editor and publisher of Rastakhiz newspaper, founder of an association for helping destitute women. Daughter of court minister Abdolhossein Teymourtash and through both her maternal grandparents a Qajar.[18]

  • Prince Iraj (1874–1926), Iranian poet and translator

  • Princess Lobat Vala (b. 1930), Iranian poet and campaigner for the Women Liberation

  • Shahrnush Parsipur, Iranian novelist, a Qajar descendant on her maternal side

  • Sadegh Hedayat, a Qajar descendant through the female line

  • Gholam-Hossein Banan, Iranian musician and singer, Qajar descendant on his maternal side.[19]

Family tree

Mothers of Qajar Shahs

See also

  • Qajar Iran

  • Abdolhossein Teymourtash

  • Austro-Hungarian Military Mission in Persia

  • Bahmani family

  • History of Iran

  • Khanates of the Caucasus

  • List of kings of Persia

  • List of Shi'a Muslims dynasties

  • Mirza Kouchek Khan

  • History of the Caucasus

  • Qajar art


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