A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance of a state (or subordinate entity) where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government. This is in contrast to a presidential system, where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature.
Countries with parliamentary democracies may be constitutional monarchies, where a monarch is the head of state while the head of government is almost always a member of parliament (such as the United Kingdom, Denmark, Sweden, and Japan), or parliamentary republics, where a mostly ceremonial president is the head of state while the head of government is regularly from the legislature (such as Ireland, Germany, India, and Italy). In a few parliamentary republics, such as Botswana, South Africa, and Suriname, among some others, the head of government is also head of state, but is elected by and is answerable to parliament. In bicameral parliaments, the head of government is generally, though not always, a member of the lower house.
Parliamentarianism is the dominant form of government in Europe, with 32 of its 50 sovereign states being parliamentarian. It is also common in the Caribbean, being the form of government of 10 of its 13 island states, and in Oceania. Elsewhere in the world, parliamentary countries are less common, but they are distributed through all continents, most often in former colonies of the British Empire that subscribe to a particular brand of parliamentarianism known as the Westminster system.
Since ancient times, when societies were tribal, there were councils or a headman whose decisions were assessed by village elders.
Eventually, these councils have slowly evolved into the modern parliamentary system.
The first parliaments date back to Europe in the Middle Ages: specifically in 1188 Alfonso IX, King of Leon (Spain) convened the three states in the Cortes of León. An early example of parliamentary government developed in today's Netherlands and Belgium during the Dutch revolt (1581), when the sovereign, legislative and executive powers were taken over by the States General of the Netherlands from the monarch, King Philip II of Spain. The modern concept of parliamentary government emerged in the Kingdom of Great Britain between 1707–1800 and its contemporary, the Parliamentary System in Sweden between 1721–1772.
In England, Simon de Montfort is remembered as one of the fathers of representative government for convening two famous parliaments. The first, in 1258, stripped the king of unlimited authority and the second, in 1265, included ordinary citizens from the towns. Later, in the 17th century, the Parliament of England pioneered some of the ideas and systems of liberal democracy culminating in the Glorious Revolution and passage of the Bill of Rights 1689.
In the Kingdom of Great Britain, the monarch, in theory, chaired cabinet and chose ministers. In practice, King George I's inability to speak English led the responsibility for chairing cabinet to go to the leading minister, literally the prime or first minister, Robert Walpole. The gradual democratisation of parliament with the broadening of the voting franchise increased parliament's role in controlling government, and in deciding whom the king could ask to form a government. By the 19th century, the Great Reform Act of 1832 led to parliamentary dominance, with its choice invariably deciding who was prime minister and the complexion of the government.
Other countries gradually adopted what came to be called the Westminster Model of government, with an executive answerable to parliament, and exercising, in the name of the head of state, powers nominally vested in the head of state. Hence the use of phrases like Her Majesty's government or His Excellency's government. Such a system became particularly prevalent in older British dominions, many of which had their constitutions enacted by the British parliament; such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the Irish Free State and the Union of South Africa. Some of these parliaments were reformed from, or were initially developed as distinct from their original British model: the Australian Senate, for instance, has since its inception more closely reflected the US Senate than the British House of Lords; whereas since 1950 there is no upper house in New Zealand.
Democracy and parliamentarianism became increasingly prevalent in Europe in the years after World War I, partially imposed by the democratic victors, the United States, Great Britain and France, on the defeated countries and their successors, notably Germany's Weimar Republic and the new Austrian Republic. Nineteenth-century urbanisation, the Industrial Revolution and modernism had already fuelled the political left's struggle for democracy and parliamentarianism for a long time. In the radicalised times at the end of World War I, democratic reforms were often seen as a means to counter popular revolutionary currents.
A parliamentary system may be either bicameral, with two chambers of parliament (or houses) or unicameral, with just one parliamentary chamber. A bicameral parliament usually consists of a directly elected lower house with the power to determine the executive government, and an upper house which may be appointed or elected through a different mechanism from the lower house.
Scholars of democracy such as Arend Lijphart distinguish two types of parliamentary democracies: the Westminster and Consensus systems.
The Westminster system is usually found in the Commonwealth of Nations and countries which were influenced by the British political tradition. These parliaments tend to have a more adversarial style of debate and the plenary session of parliament is more important than committees. Some parliaments in this model are elected using a plurality voting system (first past the post), such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and India, while others use some form of proportional representation, such as Ireland and New Zealand. The Australian House of Representatives is elected using instant-runoff voting, while the Senate is elected using proportional representation through single transferable vote. Regardless of which system is used, the voting systems tend to allow the voter to vote for a named candidate rather than a closed list.
The Western European parliamentary model (e.g. Spain, Germany) tends to have a more consensual debating system and usually has semi-circular debating chambers.
Consensus systems have more of a tendency to use proportional representation with open party lists than the Westminster Model legislatures. The committees of these Parliaments tend to be more important than the plenary chamber. Some Western European countries' parliaments (e.g. in the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Sweden) implement the principle of dualism as a form of separation of powers. In countries using this system, Members of Parliament have to resign their place in Parliament upon being appointed (or elected) minister. Ministers in those countries usually actively participate in parliamentary debates, but are not entitled to vote.
Implementations of the parliamentary system can also differ as to how the prime minister and government are appointed and whether the government needs the explicit approval of the parliament, rather than just the absence of its disapproval.
Some countries such as India also require the prime minister to be a member of the legislature, though in other countries this only exists as a convention.
The head of state appoints a prime minister who will likely have majority support in parliament. While in practice most prime ministers under the Westminster system (including Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand and the United Kingdom) are the leaders of the largest party in parliament, technically the appointment of the prime minister is a prerogative exercised by the monarch, the governor-general, or the president. No parliamentary vote takes place on who is forming a government, but since parliament can immediately defeat the government with a motion of no confidence, the head of state is limited by convention to choosing a candidate who can command the confidence of parliament, and thus has little or no influence in the decision.
The head of state appoints a prime minister who must gain a vote of confidence within a set time. Examples: Italy, Thailand.
The head of state appoints the leader of the political party holding a plurality of seats in parliament as prime minister. For example, in Greece, if no party has a majority, the leader of the party with a plurality of seats is given an exploratory mandate to receive the confidence of the parliament within three days. If this is not possible, then the leader of the party with the second highest seat number is given the exploratory mandate. If this fails, then the leader of the third largest party is given it and so on.
nominates Example: Spain, where the King sends a proposal to the Congress of Deputies for approval. Also, Germany where under the German Basic Law (constitution) the Bundestag votes on a candidate nominated by the federal president. In these cases, parliament can choose another candidate who then would be appointed by the head of state.
nominates Example: Japan, where the Emperor appoints the Prime Minister on the nomination of the National Diet. Also, Ireland where the President of Ireland appoints the Taoiseach on the nomination of the Dáil Éireann.
nominates Example: Under the Swedish Instrument of Government (1974), the power to appoint someone to form a government has been moved from the monarch to the Speaker of Parliament and the parliament itself. The speaker nominates a candidate, who is then elected to prime minister (statsminister) by the parliament if an absolute majority of the members of parliament does not vote no (i.e. they can be elected even if more members of parliament vote No than Yes).
Direct election by popular vote. Example: Israel, 1996–2001, where the prime minister was elected in a general election, with no regard to political affiliation, and whose procedure can also be described as of a semi-parliamentary system.
Furthermore, there are variations as to what conditions exist (if any) for the government to have the right to dissolve the parliament:
In some countries, such as Denmark, Malaysia, Australia and New Zealand, the prime minister has the de facto power to call an election, at will. This was also the case in the United Kingdom until the passage of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011.
In Israel, parliament may vote in order to call an election or pass a vote of no confidence against the government.
Other countries only permit an election to be called in the event of a vote of no confidence against the government, a supermajority vote in favour of an early election or prolonged deadlock in parliament. These requirements can still be circumvented. For example, in Germany in 2005, Gerhard Schröder deliberately allowed his government to lose a confidence motion, in order to call an early election.
In Sweden, the government may call a snap election at will, but the newly elected Riksdag is only elected to fill out the previous Riksdag's term. The last time this option was used was in 1958.
Norway is unique among parliamentary systems in that the Storting always serves the whole of its four-year term.
Since 2011 in the United Kingdom, the House of Commons may be dissolved early only by a vote of two-thirds of its members, or if a vote of non-confidence passes and no alternative government is formed in the next fourteen days.
The parliamentary system can be contrasted with a presidential system which operates under a stricter separation of powers, whereby the executive does not form part of—nor is appointed by—the parliamentary or legislative body. In such a system, parliaments or congresses do not select or dismiss heads of governments, and governments cannot request an early dissolution as may be the case for parliaments. There also exists the semi-presidential system that draws on both presidential systems and parliamentary systems by combining a powerful president with an executive responsible to parliament: for example, the French Fifth Republic.
A few parliamentary democratic nations such as India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, have enacted an anti-defection law, which prohibits a member of the legislature from switching to another party after being elected. With this law, elected representatives lose their seats in parliament if they vote contrary to the directions of their party.
Advantages and disadvantages
One of the advantages commonly attributed to parliamentary systems is that it is faster and easier to pass legislation, as the executive branch is formed by the direct or indirect support of the legislative branch and often includes members of the legislature.
Thus the executive (as the majority party or coalition of parties in the legislature) has a majority of the votes and can pass legislation at will.
In a presidential system, the executive is often chosen independently from the legislature.
If the executive and the majority of the legislature are from different political parties, then stalemate can occur (see Divided government). Thus the executive might not be able to implement its legislative proposals. An executive in any system (be it parliamentary, presidential or semi-presidential) is chiefly voted into office on the basis of his or her party's platform/manifesto, and the same is also true of the legislature.
Some constituencies may have a popular local candidate under an unpopular leader (or the reverse), forcing a difficult choice on the electorate.
Mixed-member proportional representation, where voters cast two votes, can make this choice easier by allowing voters to cast one vote for the local candidate (at the constituency level) but also cast a second vote for another party (at the wider parliamentary level). However, many other electoral systems such as first-past-the-post voting don't allow for this and only let voters pick either a single candidate or party, without regard for the voter disliking the candidate's party or the party's local candidate.
It has been observed that the rankings of top-performing countries according to performance indices such as list of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, Human Development Index, Global Competitiveness Report, Corruption Perceptions Index, and many more performance indexes feature most best-performing countries having parliamentary systems, while most worst-performing countries have presidential systems or strong-president semi-presidential systems. Furthermore, most of the countries that dominate top ranks of lists like the Global Liveability Ranking, the Mercer Quality of Living Survey, the Henley Passsport Index, and many such ranking lists use parliamentary systems. In contrast, the list of cities by murder rate shows an overwhelming number of cities found in countries that use presidential systems. In 2017, a paper by the University of York's economics department argued that "presidential regimes consistently produce less favourable outcomes as compared with parliamentary ones with lower output growth, higher and more volatile inflation and greater income inequality. Moreover, the magnitude of this effect is sizable."
Distribution of power
Parliamentary government has attractive features for nations that are ethnically, racially, or ideologically divided. In a presidential system, all executive power is vested in one person, the president, whereas power is more divided in a parliamentary system with its collegial executive. In the 1989 Lebanese Taif Agreement, in order to give Muslims greater political power, Lebanon moved from a semi-presidential system with a powerful president to a system more structurally similar to classical parliamentary government. Iraq similarly disdained a presidential system out of fears that such a system would be tantamount to Shiite domination of the large Sunni minority. Afghanistan's minorities refused to go along with a presidency as strong as the Pashtuns desired.
It can also be argued that power is more evenly spread out in parliamentary government, as the government and prime minister do not have the power to make unilateral decisions, as the entire government cabinet is answerable and accountable to parliament.
Parliamentary systems are less likely to allow celebrity-based politics to fully dominate a society, unlike what often happens in presidential systems, where name-recall and popularity can catapult a celebrity, actor, or popular politician to the presidency despite such candidate's lack of competence and experience.
Some scholars like Juan Linz, Fred Riggs, Bruce Ackerman, and Robert Dahl have found that parliamentary government is less prone to authoritarian collapse. These scholars point out that since World War II, two-thirds of Third World countries establishing parliamentary governments successfully made the transition to democracy. By contrast, no Third World presidential system successfully made the transition to democracy without experiencing coups and other constitutional breakdowns. A 2001 World Bank study found that parliamentary systems are associated with less corruption, which is supported by a separate study that arrived at the same conclusions.
Timing of elections
In his 1867 book The English Constitution, Walter Bagehot praised parliamentary governments for producing serious debates, for allowing for a change in power without an election, and for allowing elections at any time. Bagehot considered the four-year election rule of the United States to be unnatural, as it can potentially allow a president who has disappointed the public with a dismal performance in the second year of his term to continue on until the end of his four-year term. Under a parliamentary system, a prime minister that has lost support in the middle of his term can be easily replaced by his own peers.
Although Bagehot praised parliamentary governments for allowing an election to take place at any time, the lack of a definite election calendar can be abused.
Previously under some systems, such as the British, a ruling party could schedule elections when it felt that it was likely to retain power, and so avoid elections at times of unpopularity.
(Election timing in the UK, however, is now partly fixed under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011.) Thus, by a shrewd timing of elections, in a parliamentary system, a party can extend its rule for longer than is feasible in a functioning presidential system. This problem can be alleviated somewhat by setting fixed dates for parliamentary elections, as is the case in several of Australia's state parliaments. In other systems, such as the Dutch and the Belgian, the ruling party or coalition has some flexibility in determining the election date. Conversely, flexibility in the timing of parliamentary elections can avoid periods of legislative gridlock that can occur in a fixed period presidential system. In any case, voters ultimately have the power to choose whether to vote for the ruling party or someone else.
|Country||Connection between the legislature and the executive|
|Botswana||Parliament of Botswanaelects thePresidentwho appoints theCabinet|
|Ethiopia||Federal Parliamentary Assemblyappoints theCouncil of Ministers|
|Mauritius||National Assemblyappoints theCabinet of Mauritius|
|Somalia||Federal Parliament of Somaliaelects thePresidentwho appoints thePrime Minister|
|South Africa||Parliament of South Africaelects thePresidentwho appoints theCabinet|
|Country||Connection between the legislature and the executive|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in theHouse of Representatives of Antigua and Barbudais appointedPrime Minister of Antigua and Barbudaby theGovernor-General of Antigua and Barbuda, who then appoints theCabinet of Antigua and Barbudaon the advice of the Prime Minister|
|The Bahamas||Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in theHouse of Assembly of the Bahamasis appointedPrime Minister of the Bahamasby theGovernor-General of the Bahamas, who then appoints theCabinet of the Bahamason the advice of the Prime Minister|
|Barbados||Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in theHouse of Assembly of Barbadosis appointedPrime Minister of Barbadosby theGovernor-General of Barbados, who then appoints theCabinet of Barbadoson the advice of the Prime Minister|
|Belize||Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in theHouse of Representatives of Belizeis appointedPrime Minister of Belizeby theGovernor-General of Belize, who then appoints theCabinet of Belizeon the advice of the Prime Minister|
|Canada||Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in theHouse of Commons of Canadais appointedPrime Minister of Canadaby the Governor General of Canada, who then appoints theCabinet of Canadaon the advice of the Prime Minister|
|Dominica||Parliamentapproves theCabinet of Dominica|
|Grenada||Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in theHouse of Representatives of Grenadais appointedPrime Minister of Grenadaby theGovernor-General of Grenada, who then appoints theCabinet of Grenadaon the advice of the Prime Minister|
|Jamaica||Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in theHouse of Representatives of Jamaicais appointedPrime Minister of Jamaicaby theGovernor-General of Jamaica, who then appoints theCabinet of Jamaicaon the advice of the Prime Minister|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in theNational Assembly of Saint Kitts and Nevisis appointedPrime Minister of Saint Kitts and Nevisby theGovernor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis, who then appoints theCabinet of Saint Kitts and Nevison the advice of the Prime Minister|
|Saint Lucia||Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in theHouse of Assembly of Saint Luciais appointedPrime Minister of Saint Luciaby theGovernor-General of Saint Lucia, who then appoints theCabinet of Saint Luciaon the advice of the Prime Minister|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in theHouse of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadinesis appointedPrime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadinesby theGovernor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, who then appoints theCabinet of Saint Vincent and the Grenadineson the advice of the Prime Minister|
|Suriname (de jure)||National Assemblyelects thePresident, who appoints theCabinet of Suriname|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Parliament of Trinidad and Tobagoapproves thePrime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago|
|Country||Connection between the legislature and the executive|
|Bangladesh||Jatiyo Sangshadapproves theCabinet of Bangladesh|
|Bhutan||Parliament of Bhutanapproves theLhengye Zhungtshog|
|Cambodia||Parliament of Cambodiaapproves theCouncil of Ministers|
|India||President of Indiaappoints the leader of the political party oralliancethat has the support of a majority in theLok SabhaasPrime Minister of India, who then forms theUnion Council of Ministers|
|Iraq||Council of Representativesapproves theCabinet of Iraq|
|Israel||Leader of the political party with the mostKnessetseats in the governing coalition is appointedPrime Minister of Israelby thePresident of Israel.The Prime Minister then appoints theCabinet of Israel.|
|Japan||National Dietnominates thePrime Ministerwho appoints theCabinet of Japan|
|Kuwait||National Assemblyapproves the Crown Prince who appoints thePrime Ministerwho appoints theCabinet of Kuwait|
|Kyrgyzstan||Supreme Councilapproves theCabinet of Kyrgyzstan|
|Lebanon||Maronite Christian president is elected by theParliament of Lebanon.He appoints the Prime Minister (a Sunni Muslim) and the cabinet.The Parliament thereafter approves theCabinet of Lebanonthrough a vote of confidence (a simple majority).|
|Malaysia||Parliament of Malaysiaappoints theCabinet of Malaysia|
|Myanmar||Assembly of the Union, by anelectoral college, elects thePresidentwho forms theCabinet of Myanmar|
|Nepal||Parliament of Nepalelects thePrime Ministerwho, by turn, appoints theCabinet of Nepal|
|Pakistan||Parliament of Pakistanappoints theCabinet of Pakistan|
|Singapore||Parliament of Singaporeapproves theCabinet of Singapore|
|Thailand||TheMonarchappoints the MP nominated by in theHouse of Representatives(usually the leader of the largest party or coalition) asPrime Minister, who forms theCabinet of Thailand.|
|Country||Connection between the legislature and the executive|
|Albania||Parliament of Albaniaapproves theCabinet of Albania|
|Armenia||National Assemblyappoints and (no sooner than one year) can dismiss through theconstructive vote of no confidencetheGovernment of Armenia|
|Austria||In theory, chancellor and ministers are appointed by the President.As a practical matter, they are unable to govern without the support (or at least toleration) of a majority in theNational Council.The cabinet is politically answerable to the National Council and can be dismissed by the National Council through amotion of no confidence.|
|Belgium||Federal Parliamentapproves theCabinet of Belgium|
|Bulgaria||National Assemblyappoints theCouncil of Ministers of Bulgaria|
|Croatia||Croatian ParliamentapprovesPresident of Governmentand theCabinetnominated by him/her.|
|Czech Republic||President of the Czech Republicappoints the leader of the largest party or coalition in theChamber of Deputies of the Parliamentas Prime Minister, who forms theCabinet.The Prime Minister must gain avote of confidenceby theChamber of Deputies.|
|Denmark||TheMonarchappoints, based on recommendations from the leaders of the parties inFolketinget, the cabinet leader who is most likely to successfully assemble aCabinetwhich will not be disapproved by a majority inFolketinget.|
|Estonia||Riigikoguelects thePrime Ministercandidate nominated by thePresident of the Republic(normally this candidate is the leader of the parliamentary coalition of parties).TheGovernment of the Republic of Estoniais later appointed by the President of the Republic under proposal of the approved Prime Minister candidate.The Riigikogu may remove the Prime Minister and any other member of the government through a motion of no confidence.|
|Finland||Parliament of Finlandappoints theCabinet of Finland|
|Germany||Bundestagelects theFederal Chancellor(after nomination from thePresident of Germany), who forms theCabinet|
|Greece||Hellenic Parliamentapproves theCabinet of Greece|
|Hungary||National Assemblyapproves theCabinet of Hungary|
|Iceland||ThePresident of Icelandappoints and discharges theCabinet of Iceland.Ministers can not even resign without being discharged bypresidential decree.|
|Ireland||Dáil Éireannnominates theTaoiseach, who is then appointed by thePresident of Ireland|
|Italy||Italian Parliamentgrants and revokes its confidence in theCabinet of Italy, appointed by thePresident of Italy|
|Kosovo||Assembly of Kosovoappoints theGovernment of Kosovo|
|Latvia||Saeimaappoints theCabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia|
|Luxembourg||Chamber of Deputiesappoints theCabinet of Luxembourg|
|Malta||House of Representativesappoints theCabinet of Malta|
|Moldova||Parliament of Moldovaappoints theCabinet of Moldova|
|Montenegro||Parliament of Montenegroappoints theGovernment of Montenegro|
|Netherlands||Second Chamber of the States-Generalcan dismiss theCabinet of the Netherlandsthrough amotion of no confidence|
|North Macedonia||Assemblyapproves theGovernment of North Macedonia|
|Norway||TheMonarchappoints the MP leading the largest party or coalition inStortingetasPrime Minister, who forms theCabinet|
|Serbia||National Assemblyappoints theGovernment of Serbia|
|Slovakia||National Councilapproves theGovernment of Slovakia|
|Slovenia||National Assemblyappoints theGovernment of Slovenia|
|Spain||The Congress of Deputieselects thePresident of the Government, who forms theCabinet|
|Sweden||TheRiksdagelects thePrime Minister, who in turn appoints the other members of theGovernment|
|Switzerland||AUnited Federal Assemblyelects the members of theSwiss Federal Council|
|United Kingdom||Themonarchappoints the MP leading the largest party or coalition in the House of Commonsas Prime Minister, who forms theCabinet|
|Country||Connection between the legislature and the executive|
|Australia||Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in theAustralian House of Representativesis appointedPrime Minister of Australiaby theGovernor-General of Australia, who then appoints theCabinet of Australiaon the advice of the Prime Minister|
|New Zealand||Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in theNew Zealand House of Representativesis appointedPrime Minister of New Zealandby theGovernor-General of New Zealand, who then appoints theCabinet of New Zealandon the advice of the Prime Minister|
|Papua New Guinea||Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in theNational Parliamentis appointedPrime Minister of Papua New Guineaby theGovernor-General of Papua New Guinea, who then appoints theCabinet of Papua New Guineaon the advice of the Prime Minister|
|Samoa||Legislative Assemblyappoints theCabinet of Samoa|
|Vanuatu||Parliament of Vanuatuappoints theCabinet of Vanuatu|
List of countries by system of government
List of legislatures by country
Parliament in the Making
Rule according to higher law