Everipedia Logo
Everipedia is now IQ.wiki - Join the IQ Brainlist and our Discord for early access to editing on the new platform and to participate in the beta testing.


Muhammad (Arabic : محمد ‎; pronounced [muħammad]; French : Mahomet /məˈhɒmɪt/; latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) is the prophet and founder of Islam. [666666] [2] According to Islamic doctrine, he was God's Messenger, sent to confirm the essential teachings of monotheism preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. [2] He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. [118] Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity and his teachings, practices, and the Quran form the basis of Islamic religious belief.

Born approximately 570 CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at an early age; he was raised under the care of his paternal uncle Abu Talib. Periodically, he would seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer; later, at age 40, he reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave, [73] where he stated he received his first revelation from God. Three years later, in 610, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" (lit. islām ) to him is the right course of action (dīn ), [117] and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.

Muhammad gained few early followers, and met hostility from some Meccans. To escape persecution, Muhammad sent some followers to Abyssinia before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent wars with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca. The conquest went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill and died. Before his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam.

The revelations (each known as Ayah , lit. "Sign [of God]"), which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the "Word of God" and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices (sunnah ), found in the Hadith and sira literature, are also upheld by Muslims and used as sources of Islamic law (see Sharia).

Islamic prophetMuhammadمُحَمَّد
BornMuḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh(Arabic:مُحَمَّد بِن عَبد الله‎)c. 570
Died8 June 632 (aged c. 62)
Resting place
Green Domeatal-Masjid an-Nabawi, Medina(present-day Saudi Arabia)

Other names
  • Abu al-Qasim(Kunya)
  • Rasūl Allāh("Messenger of God")
  • Names and titles of Muhammad)
Years active
583–609 CE as merchant609–632 CE as religious leader
Notable workConstitution of Medina
SuccessorSuccession to Muhammad
Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalibsmaller
RelativesFamily tree of Muhammad,Ahl al-Bayt("Family of the House")
Personal (Ism)Muhammad
Patronymic (Nasab)Muḥammad ibn'Abd Allahibn 'Abdul-MuttalibibnHashimibn'Abd ManafibnQusaiibnKilab
Teknonymic (Kunya)Abual-Qasim
Epithet (Laqab)Khātim an-Nâbîyīn
Seal of Muhammad

Names and appellations in the Quran

The name Muhammad ( /mʊˈhæməd, -ˈhɑːməd/ ) [111] means "praiseworthy" and appears four times in the Quran. The Quran addresses Muhammad (P.B.U.H - Peace Be Upon Him) in the second person by various appellations; prophet, messenger, servant of God ('abd), announcer (bashirQuran ] witness ( Quran ] bearer of good tidings ( mubashshir), warner (*nathirQuran ] reminder ( mudhakkirQuran ] one who calls [unto God] ( Quran ] light personified ( noorQuran ] and the light-giving lamp ( siraj munirQuran ] Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address: thus he is referred to as the enwrapped ( ) in Quran and the shrouded ( al-muddaththir Seal of the Prophets", or the last of the prophets. The Quran also refers to Muhammad as *"more praiseworthy" (Arabic : أحمد ‎, Sura As-Saff).

The name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, [133] begins with the kunya [15] Abū, which corresponds to the English, father of. [40]


Citation Linken.wikipedia.orgThe original version of this page is from Wikipedia, you can edit the page right here on Everipedia.Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.Additional terms may apply.See everipedia.org/everipedia-terms for further details.Images/media credited individually (click the icon for details).
Sep 2, 2016, 3:39 AM
Citation Linkoxfordislamicstudies.com"Muḥammad"
Dec 7, 2017, 3:35 AM
Citation Linkupload.wikimedia.orgThe name Muhammad written in Thuluth, a script variety of Islamic calligraphy.
Sep 2, 2016, 3:43 AM
Citation Linkbooks.google.comThe Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Volume I: The Peoples of God
Dec 7, 2017, 3:37 AM
Citation Linkeveripedia-storage.s3.amazonaws.comA folio from an early Quran, written in Kufic script (Abbasid period, 8th–9th century)
Sep 2, 2016, 3:43 AM
Citation Linkeveripedia-storage.s3.amazonaws.comArabian peninsula, Byzantine and Sassanid-Persian empires in c. 600 CE, on the eve of rise of Islam.
Sep 2, 2016, 3:43 AM
Citation Linkeveripedia-storage.s3.amazonaws.comMain tribes and settlements of Arabia in Muhammad's lifetime
Sep 2, 2016, 3:43 AM
Citation Linkeveripedia-storage.s3.amazonaws.comMiniature from Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's *Jami al-Tawarikh *, c. 1315 , illustrating the story of Muhammad's role in re-setting the Black Stone in 605.(Ilkhanate period)
Sep 2, 2016, 3:43 AM
Citation Linkbooks.google.comHistory of Philosophy, Vol. 1: From Thales to the Present Time
Dec 7, 2017, 3:36 AM
Citation Linkeveripedia-storage.s3.amazonaws.comThe cave Hira in the mountain Jabal al-Nour where, according to Muslim belief, Muhammad received his first revelation.
Sep 2, 2016, 3:43 AM
Citation Linkbooks.google.comIslamic Culture
Dec 7, 2017, 3:39 AM
Citation Linkeveripedia-storage.s3.amazonaws.comA depiction of Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel.From the manuscript *Jami' al-tawarikh * by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307, Ilkhanate period.
Sep 2, 2016, 3:43 AM
Citation Linkunicode.org"Arabic Presentation Forms-A"
Dec 7, 2017, 3:39 AM
Citation Linkeveripedia-storage.s3.amazonaws.comThe last ayah from the sura An-Najm in the Quran: "So prostrate to Allah and worship [Him]."Muhammad's message of monotheism (one God) challenged the traditional order.
Sep 2, 2016, 3:43 AM
Citation Linkbooks.google.comA Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza, Volume 1
Dec 7, 2017, 3:36 AM
Citation Linkbooks.google.comVoices of Islam: Voices of the spirit
Dec 7, 2017, 3:38 AM
Citation Linkbooks.google.comMemories of Muhammad: why the Prophet matters
Dec 7, 2017, 3:38 AM
Citation Linkeveripedia-storage.s3.amazonaws.comThe Al-Aqsa Mosque, part of the al-Haram ash-Sharif complex in Jerusalem and built in 705, was named the "farthest mosque" to honor the possible location to which Muhammad travelled in his night journey.The al-Haram ash-Sharif is the third holiest place on earth for Muslims.
Sep 2, 2016, 3:43 AM
Citation Linkworldcat.org0928-6802
Dec 7, 2017, 3:36 AM
Citation Linkeveripedia-storage.s3.amazonaws.comQuranic inscriptions on the Dome of the Rock, adjacent to the Al-Aqsa Mosque in the al-Haram ash-Sharif.The Dome of the Rock marks the spot Muhammad is believed to have ascended to heaven.
Sep 2, 2016, 3:43 AM