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ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO). It contains codes for diseases, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases.[3] Work on ICD-10 began in 1983,[4] became endorsed by the Forty-third World Health Assembly in 1990, and was first used by member states in 1994.[3]

Whilst WHO manages and publishes the base version of the ICD, several members states have modified it to better suit their needs. In the base classification, the code set allows for more than 14,000 different codes[5] and permits the tracking of many new diagnoses compared to the preceding ICD-9. Through the use of optional sub-classifications ICD-10 allows for specificity regarding the cause, manifestation, location, severity and type of injury or disease.[6] The adapted versions may differ in a number of ways, and some national editions have expanded the code set even further; with some going so far as to add procedure codes. ICD-10-CM, for example, has over 70,000 codes.[7]

The WHO provides detailed information regarding the ICD via its website – including an ICD-10 online browser[8] and ICD training materials.[9] The online training includes a support forum,[10] a self learning tool[9] and user guide.[11]


The following table lists the chapter number (using Roman numerals), the code range of each chapter, and the chapter's title from the international version of the ICD-10.[12]

ICD-10 chapters
IA00–B99Certain infectious and parasitic diseases
IIID50–D89Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism
IVE00–E90Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases
VF00–F99Mental and behavioural disorders
VIG00–G99Diseases of the nervous system
VIIH00–H59Diseases of the eye and adnexa
VIIIH60–H95Diseases of the ear and mastoid process
IXI00–I99Diseases of the circulatory system
XJ00–J99Diseases of the respiratory system
XIK00–K93Diseases of the digestive system
XIIL00–L99Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
XIIIM00–M99Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
XIVN00–N99Diseases of the genitourinary system
XVO00–O99Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium
XVIP00–P96Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period
XVIIQ00–Q99Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities
XVIIIR00–R99Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified
XIXS00–T98Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
XXV01–Y98External causes of morbidity and mortality
XXIZ00–Z99Factors influencing health status and contact with health services
XXIIU00–U99Codes for special purposes

National adoptions

Approximately 27[13][14] countries use ICD-10 for reimbursement and resource allocation in their health system, and some have made modifications to ICD to better accommodate its utility. The unchanged international version of ICD-10 is used in 117 countries for performing cause of death reporting and statistics.[3]

The national versions may differ from the base classification in the level of detail, incomplete adoption of a category,[15] or the addition of procedure codes.


Introduced in 1998, ICD-10 Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) was developed by the National Centre for Classification in Health at the University of Sydney.[16] It is currently maintained by the Australian Consortium for Classification Development.[17]

ICD-10-AM has also been adopted by New Zealand,[18] the Republic of Ireland,[19] Saudi Arabia[20] and several other countries.[21]


Brazil introduced ICD-10 in 1996.[22]


Canada began using ICD-10 for mortality reporting in 2000.[23] A six-year, phased implementation of ICD-10-CA for morbidity reporting began in 2001.[24] It was staggered across Canada's ten provinces, with Quebec the last to make the switch.[24]

ICD-10-CA is available in both English and French language versions.[23]


China adopted ICD-10 in 2002.[25]

Czech Republic

The Czech Republic adopted ICD-10 in 1994, one year after its official release by WHO.[26] Revisions to the international edition are adopted continuously.[27];[28] The official Czech translation of ICD-10 2016 10th Revision was published in 2018.[29]


France introduced a clinical addendum to ICD-10 in 1997.[30] See also website of the ATIH.


Germany's ICD-10 German Modification (ICD-10-GM) is based on ICD-10-AM.[21] ICD-10-GM was developed between 2003 and 2004, by the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information.[21]


A Korean modification has existed since 2008.[31]


The Dutch translation of ICD-10 is ICD10-nl, which was created by the WHO-FIC Network in 1994.[32] There is an online dictionary.[33]


The Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation ordered in 1997 to transfer all health organizations to ICD-10.[34]

South Africa

ICD-10 was implemented in July 2005 under the auspice of the National ICD-10 Implementation Task Team which is a joint task team between the National Department of Health and the Council for Medical Schemes.[35]


The current Swedish translation of ICD-10 was created in 1997.[36] A clinical modification has added more detail and omits codes of the international version in the context of clinical use of ICD:

The codes F64.1 (Dual-role transvestism), F64.2 (Gender identity disorder of childhood), F65.0 (Fetishism), F65.1 (Fetishistic transvestism), F65.5 (Sadomasochism), F65.6 (Multiple disorders of sexual preference) are not used in Sweden since 1 January 2009 according to a decision by the present Director General of The National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden. The code O60.0 (Preterm labor without delivery) is not used in Sweden; instead, since 1 January 2009, the Swedish extension codes to O47 (False labor) are recommended for use.


First published in 1998, the ICD-10-TM (Thai Modification) is a Thai language version of ICD-10. Maintenance and development of ICD-10-TM is the responsibility of the Thai Health Coding Center (THCC), a department of the Thai Ministry of Public Health. The current version of ICD-10-TM is based on the 2016 version of ICD-10. An unusual feature of the index of ICD-10-TM is that it is bilingual, containing both Thai and English trails.[37]

Along with Czechoslovakia and Denmark; Thailand was one of the first adopters of ICD-10 for coding purposes.

United Kingdom

ICD-10 was first mandated for use in the UK in 1995.[38] In 2010 the UK Government made a commitment to update the UK version of ICD-10 every three years.[39] On 1 April 2016, following a year's delay,[39] ICD-10 5th Edition[1] replaced the 4th Edition as the mandated diagnostic classification within the UK.[40]

United States

For disease reporting, the US utilizes its own national variant of ICD-10 called the ICD-10 Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM).[41] A procedural classification called ICD-10 Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS)[2] has also been developed for capturing inpatient procedures.[41] The ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS were developed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).[41][42] There are over 70,000 ICD-10-PCS procedure codes and over 69,000 ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes, compared to about 3,800 procedure codes and roughly 14,000 diagnosis codes found in the previous ICD-9-CM.[7]

There was much controversy when the transition from the ICD-9-CM to the ICD-10-CM was first announced in the US. Many providers were concerned about the vast number of codes being added, the complexity of the new coding system, and the costs associated with the transition [43]. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) weighed these concerns against the benefits of having more accurate data collection, clearer documentation of diagnoses and procedures, and more accurate claims processing[43]. CMS decided the financial and public health cost associated with continuing to use the ICD-9-CM was too high and mandated the switch to ICD-10-CM.[43]

The deadline for the United States to begin using ICD-10-CM for diagnosis coding and Procedure Coding System ICD-10-PCS for inpatient hospital procedure coding was set at October 1, 2015,[44][45] a year later than the previous 2014 deadline.[46] Before the 2014 deadline, the previous deadline had been a year before that on October 1, 2013.[47][48] All HIPAA "covered entities" were required to make the change; a pre-requisite to ICD-10-CM is the adoption of EDI Version 5010 by January 1, 2012.[49] Enforcement of 5010 transition by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), however, was postponed by CMS until March 31, 2012, with the federal agency citing numerous factors, including slow software upgrades.[50] The implementation of ICD-10-CM has been subject to previous delays. In January 2009, the date was pushed back to October 1, 2013, rather than an earlier proposal of October 1, 2011.[51]


The expansion of healthcare delivery systems and changes in global health trends prompted a need for codes with improved clinical accuracy and specificity.[42] The alphanumeric coding in ICD-10 is an improvement from ICD-9 which had a limited number of codes and a restrictive structure.[42] Early concerns in the implementation of ICD-10 included the cost and the availability of resources for training healthcare workers and professional coders.[52]

Two common complaints in the United States about the ICD-10-CM are 1) the long list of potentially relevant codes for a given condition (such as rheumatoid arthritis) which can be confusing and reduce efficiency and 2) the assigned codes for seldom seen conditions (e.g. W55.22XA: Struck by cow, initial encounter and V91.07XA: Burn due to water-skis on fire, initial encounter).[53][54]

See also


Citation Linkopenlibrary.orgThe numbering system of editions only refers to those used in the UK; not those issued by WHO. For example, whilst the 5th edition is based on ICD-10 version:2016, the 4th edition was based on the version from 2010 (skipping the versions of ICD-10 from 2014 and 2015).
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkopenlibrary.orgAlthough named ICD-10-PCS, this volume is not based on any of the WHO-FIC publications.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkwww.who.int"International Classification of Diseases (ICD) Information Sheet". Retrieved 29 October 2018.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkapps.who.int"ICD-10 Fifth Edition" (PDF). apps.who.int. p. 5. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkwww.who.int"FAQ on ICD". Retrieved 29 October 2018.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkwww.who.int"ICD-10 Second Edition Volume 2 – World Health Organization, p15" (PDF). Who.int. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkicd.codes"The switch from ICD-9 to ICD-10: When and why". icd.codes. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkapps.who.int"ICD-10 Version:2016". apps.who.int. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkapps.who.int"ICD-10 Training Tool". apps.who.int. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linksites.google.com"ICD-10-online-training". sites.google.com. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkapps.who.int"ICD-10 User Guide" (PDF). Retrieved 20 November 2018.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkapps.who.int"International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision". World Health Organization. 2010. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkwww.eohima.org"3M Health Information Services: ICD-10 Overview" (PDF). Eastern Ohio Health Information Management Association. 2009. Retrieved Dec 2, 2015.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkopenlibrary.orgFrance, Francis H. Roger (2001). Case Mix: Global Views, Local Actions : Evolution in Twenty Countries. Amsterdam: IOS Press. ISBN 1 58603 217 8.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkopenlibrary.orgNational Clinical Coding Standards ICD-10 5th Edition (2017). NHS Digital Clinical Classification Services. April 2017. p. 200.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkwww.accd.net.au"ICD-10-AM/ACHI/ACS: Australian Consortium for Classification Development". Australian Consortium for Classification Development. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkwww.accd.net.au"Overview : Australian Consortium for Classification Development". Australian Consortium for Classification Development. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkwww.health.govt.nz"ICD-10-AM/ACHI/ACS". Ministry of Health NZ. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkwww.hpo.ie"Irish Coding Standards Version 9" (PDF). Healthcare Pricing Office. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM
Citation Linkwww.moh.gov.saالصحة, فريق بوابة وزارة. "ICD-10-AM - Introduction". www.moh.gov.sa. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
Sep 22, 2019, 8:12 PM