# Critical point (thermodynamics)

# Critical point (thermodynamics)

In thermodynamics, a **critical point** (or **critical state**) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve. The most prominent example is the liquid-vapor critical point, the end point of the pressure-temperature curve that designates conditions under which a liquid and its vapor can coexist. At higher temperatures, the gas cannot be liquefied by pressure alone. At the critical point, defined by a *critical temperature* *T*c and a *critical pressure* *p*c, phase boundaries vanish. Other examples include the liquid–liquid critical points in mixtures.

Liquid-vapor critical point

Overview

For simplicity and clarity, the generic notion of *critical point* is best introduced by discussing a specific example, the liquid-vapor critical point. This was the first critical point to be discovered, and it is still the best known and most studied one.

The figure to the right shows the schematic PT diagram of a *pure substance* (as opposed to mixtures, which have additional state variables and richer phase diagrams, discussed below). The commonly known phases *solid*, *liquid* and *vapor* are separated by phase boundaries, i.e. pressure-temperature combinations where two phases can coexist. At the triple point, all three phases can coexist. However, the liquid-vapor boundary terminates in an endpoint at some *critical temperature* *T*c and *critical pressure* *p*c. This is the *critical point*.

In the *vicinity* of the critical point, the physical properties of the liquid and the vapor change dramatically, with both phases becoming ever more similar. For instance, liquid water under normal conditions is nearly incompressible, has a low thermal expansion coefficient, has a high dielectric constant, and is an excellent solvent for electrolytes. Near the critical point, all these properties change into the exact opposite: water becomes compressible, expandable, a poor dielectric, a bad solvent for electrolytes, and prefers to mix with nonpolar gases and organic molecules.^{[3]}

*At* the critical point, only one phase exists. The heat of vaporization is zero. There is a stationary inflection point in the constant-temperature line (*critical isotherm*) on a PV diagram. This means that at the critical point:^{[4]}^{[5]}^{[6]}

*Above* the critical point there exists a state of matter that is continuously connected with (can be transformed without phase transition into) both the liquid and the gaseous state. It is called supercritical fluid. The common textbook knowledge that all distinction between liquid and vapor disappears beyond the critical point has been challenged by Fisher and Widom^{[7]} who identified a p,T-line that separates states with different asymptotic statistical properties (Fisher-Widom line).

History

The existence of a critical point was first discovered by Charles Cagniard de la Tour in 1822^{[8]}^{[9]} and named by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1860^{[10]}^{[11]} and Thomas Andrews in 1869.^{[12]} Cagniard showed that CO2 could be liquefied at 31 °C at a pressure of 73 atm, but not at a slightly higher temperature, even under pressures as high as 3,000 atm.

Theory

`Solving the above conditionfor thevan der Waals equation, one can compute the critical point as`

- .

However, the van der Waals equation, based on a mean field theory, does not hold near the critical point. In particular, it predicts wrong scaling laws.

To analyse properties of fluids near the critical point, reduced state variables are sometimes defined relative to the critical properties^{[13]}

- .

The principle of corresponding states indicates that substances at equal reduced pressures and temperatures have equal reduced volumes. This relationship is approximately true for many substances, but becomes increasingly inaccurate for large values of *pr*.

For some gases, there is an additional correction factor, called *Newton's correction*, added to the critical temperature and critical pressure calculated in this manner. These are empirically derived values and vary with the pressure range of interest.^{[14]}

Table of liquid–vapor critical temperature and pressure for selected substances

Substance^{[15]}^{[16]} | Critical temperature | Critical pressure (absolute) |
---|---|---|

Argon | −122.4 °C (150.8 K) | 48.1 atm (4,870 kPa) |

Ammonia (NH_{3})^{[17]} | 132.4 °C (405.5 K) | 111.3 atm (11,280 kPa) |

R-134a | 101.06 °C (374.21 K) | 40.06 atm (4,059 kPa) |

R-410A | 72.8 °C (345.9 K) | 47.08 atm (4,770 kPa) |

Bromine | 310.8 °C (584.0 K) | 102 atm (10,300 kPa) |

Caesium | 1,664.85 °C (1,938.00 K) | 94 atm (9,500 kPa) |

Chlorine | 143.8 °C (416.9 K) | 76.0 atm (7,700 kPa) |

Ethanol (C_{2}H_{5}OH) | 241 °C (514 K) | 62.18 atm (6,300 kPa) |

Fluorine | −128.85 °C (144.30 K) | 51.5 atm (5,220 kPa) |

Helium | −267.96 °C (5.19 K) | 2.24 atm (227 kPa) |

Hydrogen | −239.95 °C (33.20 K) | 12.8 atm (1,300 kPa) |

Krypton | −63.8 °C (209.3 K) | 54.3 atm (5,500 kPa) |

Methane (CH_{4}) | −82.3 °C (190.8 K) | 45.79 atm (4,640 kPa) |

Neon | −228.75 °C (44.40 K) | 27.2 atm (2,760 kPa) |

Nitrogen | −146.9 °C (126.2 K) | 33.5 atm (3,390 kPa) |

Oxygen | −118.6 °C (154.6 K) | 49.8 atm (5,050 kPa) |

Carbon dioxide (CO_{2}) | 31.04 °C (304.19 K) | 72.8 atm (7,380 kPa) |

Nitrous oxide (N_{2}O) | 36.4 °C (309.5 K) | 71.5 atm (7,240 kPa) |

Sulfuric acid (H_{2}SO_{4}) | 654 °C (927 K) | 45.4 atm (4,600 kPa) |

Xenon | 16.6 °C (289.8 K) | 57.6 atm (5,840 kPa) |

Lithium | 2,950 °C (3,220 K) | 652 atm (66,100 kPa) |

Mercury | 1,476.9 °C (1,750.1 K) | 1,720 atm (174,000 kPa) |

Sulfur | 1,040.85 °C (1,314.00 K) | 207 atm (21,000 kPa) |

Iron | 8,227 °C (8,500 K) | |

Gold | 6,977 °C (7,250 K) | 5,000 atm (510,000 kPa) |

Aluminium | 7,577 °C (7,850 K) | |

Water (H_{2}O)^{[2]}^{[18]} | 373.946 °C (647.096 K) | 217.7 atm (22,060 kPa) |

Mixtures: liquid–liquid critical point

The liquid–liquid critical point of a solution, which occurs at the *critical solution temperature*, occurs at the limit of the two-phase region of the phase diagram. In other words, it is the point at which an infinitesimal change in some thermodynamic variable (such as temperature or pressure) will lead to separation of the mixture into two distinct liquid phases, as shown in the polymer–solvent phase diagram to the right. Two types of liquid–liquid critical points are the upper critical solution temperature (UCST), which is the hottest point at which cooling will induce phase separation, and the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), which is the coldest point at which heating will induce phase separation.

Mathematical definition

From a theoretical standpoint, the liquid–liquid critical point represents the temperature-concentration extremum of the spinodal curve (as can be seen in the figure to the right). Thus, the liquid–liquid critical point in a two-component system must satisfy two conditions: the condition of the spinodal curve (the *second* derivative of the free energy with respect to concentration must equal zero), and the extremum condition (the *third* derivative of the free energy with respect to concentration must also equal zero or the derivative of the spinodal temperature with respect to concentration must equal zero).

See also

Conformal field theory

Critical exponents

Critical phenomena (more advanced article)

Critical points of the elements (data page)

Curie point

Joback method, Klincewicz method, Lydersen method (Estimation of critical temperature, pressure, and volume from molecular structure)

Liquid-liquid critical point

Lower critical solution temperature

Néel point

Percolation thresholds

Phase transition

Rushbrooke inequality

Scale invariance

Self-organized criticality

Supercritical fluid, Supercritical drying, Supercritical water oxidation, Supercritical fluid extraction

Tricritical point

Triple point

Upper critical solution temperature

Widom scaling

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