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There are many Chinese characters transcribed in Hanyu Pinyin as zhi (Wade-Giles chih):

  • Zhi/挚 state, lord's 2nd daughter such as Tai Ren/太任 (Zhou Wen/周文 King's mother)

  • Zi Zhi/子之, Zi/子 clan, name Zhi/之

  • Zhi/挚, names of 2 people, Shaohao/少昊 & Emperor Zhi (dad Gaoyao/皋陶's descendant, mom Hui/挥 (Changyi/昌意 (youngest son Shijun/始均)'s son)'s descendant Changyi/常仪, born in present Yangquan, living in Youling/幽陵 (Beijing/北京) like friend Gonggong (same years old with Emperor Zhi, born in Youling), reign 9 years & then deposed for being dissolute, 14 years older than Panhu/盘瓠 (dad Gaoyao's descendant Hou Yi/后羿, mom Hui's descendant Chang'e/嫦娥, born & living in Bo/亳, 4 years younger than Shujun/叔均, 3 years older than Qi/契, 2 years older than Shishen/实沈) )

  • 志 zhì, aspiration, will.

  • The "will" is a fundamental concept in the philosophy of Mencius, leading authorities such as David Nivison to classify Mencius as a "voluntarist" philosopher. Mencius believes that humans have four fundamental "beginnings" or embryonic drives that can, if protected and properly nurtured, form the basis of a human being who has immense powers to retain his or her autonomy. Each individual's zhì chooses that person's course in life on the basis of the four fundamental ethical drives and on other factors such as the desire for food, water, and the fulfillment of other ordinary requirements of life.

  • 智 zhì, wisdom.

  • This "wisdom" is the name of one of Mencius's four virtues which grow from the above-mentioned four beginnings.

  • It is the innate ability to distinguish right from wrong in the actions of other people.

  • For instance, one will automatically see something wrong when a large and powerful person takes advantage of a weaker adult or a child and be motivated to rectify the situation.

  • 知 zhī, to know

  • 質 zhí, substance.

  • The Huai-nan-zi, 3:1a/19, says:

The idea that there is a heavier fraction of qi seems to have originated with this passage. Similar ideas show up in the writing of Song dynasty philosopher, particularly Zhu Xi, and there this kind of "materialized lifebreath" is called zhí. Zhu Xi uses the idea of "materialized lifebreath" to explain what we today would call the phenotypical nature of a human being as opposed to the genotypical nature of that human being.


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Sep 21, 2019, 10:19 PM