# Beer–Lambert law

# Beer–Lambert law

The **Beer–Lambert law**, also known as **Beer's law**, the **Lambert–Beer law**, or the **Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law** relates the attenuation of light to the properties of the material through which the light is travelling. The law is commonly applied to chemical analysis measurements and used in understanding attenuation in physical optics, for photons, neutrons, or rarefied gases. In mathematical physics, this law arises as a solution of the BGK equation.

History

The law was discovered by Pierre Bouguer before 1729, while looking at red wine, during a brief vacation in Alentejo, Portugal.^{[1]} It is often attributed to Johann Heinrich Lambert, who cited Bouguer's *Essai d'optique sur la gradation de la lumière* (Claude Jombert, Paris, 1729)—and even quoted from it—in his *Photometria* in 1760.^{[2]} Lambert's law stated that absorbance of a material sample is directly proportional to its thickness (path length). Much later, August Beer discovered another attenuation relation in 1852. Beer's law stated that absorbance is proportional to the concentrations of the attenuating species in the material sample.^{[3]} The modern derivation of the Beer–Lambert law combines the two laws and correlates the absorbance to both the concentrations of the attenuating species and the thickness of the material sample.^{[4]}

Beer–Lambert law

A common and practical expression of the **Beer-Lambert** law relates the optical attenuation of a physical material containing a single attenuating species of uniform concentration to the optical path length through the sample and absorptivity of the species. This expression is:

Where

is the molar attenuation coefficient or absorptivity of the attenuating species

is the optical path length

is the concentration of the attenuating species

`A more general form of the`

**Beer–Lambert law**states that, forattenuating species in the material sample,or equivalently that

where

is the attenuation cross section of the attenuating species in the material sample;

is the number density of the attenuating species ** in the material sample;

is the molar attenuation coefficient or absorptivity of the attenuating species ** in the material sample;

is the amount concentration of the attenuating species ** in the material sample;

is the path length of the beam of light through the material sample.

`In the above equations, thetransmittanceof material sample is related to itsoptical depthand to itsabsorbance`

*A*by the following definitionwhere

is the radiant flux

*transmitted*by that material sample;is the radiant flux received by that material sample.

Attenuation cross section and molar attenuation coefficient are related by

and number density and amount concentration by

`whereis theAvogadro constant.`

In case of *uniform* attenuation, these relations become^{[5]}

or equivalently

Cases of *non-uniform* attenuation occur in atmospheric science applications and radiation shielding theory for instance.

The law tends to break down at very high concentrations, especially if the material is highly scattering. Absorbance within range of 0.2 to 0.5 is ideal to maintain the linearity in Beer-Lambart law. If the radiation is especially intense, nonlinear optical processes can also cause variances. The main reason, however, is that the concentration dependence is in general non-linear and Beer's law is valid only under certain conditions as shown by derivation below. For strong oscillators and at high concentrations the deviations are stronger. If the molecules are closer to each other interactions can set in. These interactions can be roughly divided into physical and chemical interactions. Physical interaction do not alter the polarizability of the molecules as long as the interaction is not so strong that light and molecular quantum state intermix (strong coupling), but cause the attenuation cross sections to be non-additive via electromagnetic coupling. Chemical interactions in contrast change the polarizability and thus absorption.

Expression with attenuation coefficient

`The Beer–Lambert law can be expressed in terms ofattenuation coefficient, but in this case is better called Lambert's law since amount concentration, from Beer's law, is hidden inside the attenuation coefficient. The (Napierian) attenuation coefficientand the decadic attenuation coefficientof a material sample are related to its number densities and amount concentrations as`

respectively, by definition of attenuation cross section and molar attenuation coefficient. Then the Beer–Lambert law becomes

and

In case of *uniform* attenuation, these relations become

or equivalently

Derivation

Assume that a beam of light enters a material sample. Define *z* as an axis parallel to the direction of the beam. Divide the material sample into thin slices, perpendicular to the beam of light, with thickness d*z* sufficiently small that one particle in a slice cannot obscure another particle in the same slice when viewed along the *z* direction. The radiant flux of the light that emerges from a slice is reduced, compared to that of the light that entered, by dΦe(*z*) = −*μ*(*z*)Φe(*z*) d*z*, where *μ* is the (Napierian) attenuation coefficient, which yields the following first-order linear ODE:

The attenuation is caused by the photons that did not make it to the other side of the slice because of scattering or absorption. The solution to this differential equation is obtained by multiplying the integrating factor

throughout to obtain

which simplifies due to the product rule (applied backwards) to

Integrating both sides and solving for Φe for a material of real thickness *ℓ*, with the incident radiant flux upon the slice Φei = Φe(0) and the transmitted radiant flux Φet = Φe(*ℓ* ) gives

and finally

Since the decadic attenuation coefficient *μ*10 is related to the (Napierian) attenuation coefficient by *μ*10 = *μ*/ln 10, one also have

To describe the attenuation coefficient in a way independent of the number densities *n**i* of the *N* attenuating species of the material sample, one introduces the attenuation cross section *σ**i* = *μ**i*(*z*)/*n**i*(*z*). *σ**i* has the dimension of an area; it expresses the likelihood of interaction between the particles of the beam and the particles of the specie *i* in the material sample:

One can also use the molar attenuation coefficients *ε**i* = (NA/ln 10)*σ**i*, where NA is the Avogadro constant, to describe the attenuation coefficient in a way independent of the amount concentrations *c**i*(*z*) = *n**i*(*z*)/NA of the attenuating species of the material sample:

The above assumption that the attenuation cross sections are additive is generally incorrect since electromagnetic coupling occurs if the distances between the absorbing entities is small. ^{[6]}

`The derivation of the concentration dependence of the absorbance is based on electromagnetic theory.`

^{[7]}Accordingly, the macroscopic polarization of a mediumderives from the microscopic dipole momentsin the absence of interaction according to`whereis the dipole moment andthe number of absorbing entities per unit volume. On the other hand, macroscopic polarization is given by:`

`Hererepresents the relative dielectric function,the vacuum permittivity andthe electric field. After equating and solving for the relative dielectric function the result is:`

`If we take into account that the polarizabilityis defined byand that for the number of absorbers per unit volumeholds, it follows that:`

`According to Maxwell's wave equation the following relation between the complex dielectric function and the complex index of refraction function holdsfor isotropic and homogeneous media. Therefore:`

`The imaginary part of the complex index of refraction is the index of absorption. Employing the imaginary part of the polarizabilityand the approximationit follows that:`

`Taking into account the relation betweenand,it eventually follows that`

`As a consequence, the linear relation between concentration and absorbance is generally an approximation, and holds in particular only for small polarisabilities and weak absorptions, i.e. oscillator strengths. If we do not introduce the approximation, and employ instead the following relation between the imaginary part of the relative dielectric function and index of refraction and absorptionit becomes obvious that the molar attenuation coefficient depends on the index of refraction (which is itself concentration dependent):`

Validity

Under certain conditions Beer–Lambert law fails to maintain a linear relationship between attenuation and concentration of analyte.^{[8]} These deviations are classified into three categories:

Real—fundamental deviations due to the limitations of the law itself.

Chemical—deviations observed due to specific chemical species of the sample which is being analyzed.

Instrument—deviations which occur due to how the attenuation measurements are made.

There are at least six conditions that need to be fulfilled in order for Beer–Lambert law to be valid. These are:

The attenuators must act independently of each other. Electromagnetic coupling must be excluded.

^{[9]}The attenuating medium must be homogeneous in the interaction volume.

The attenuating medium must not scatter the radiation—no turbidity—unless this is accounted for as in DOAS.

The incident radiation must consist of parallel rays, each traversing the same length in the absorbing medium.

The incident radiation should preferably be monochromatic, or have at least a width that is narrower than that of the attenuating transition. Otherwise a spectrometer as detector for the power is needed instead of a photodiode which has not a selective wavelength dependence.

The incident flux must not influence the atoms or molecules; it should only act as a non-invasive probe of the species under study. In particular, this implies that the light should not cause optical saturation or optical pumping, since such effects will deplete the lower level and possibly give rise to stimulated emission.

The wave properties of light must be negligible. In particular interference enhancement or decrease must not occur.

^{[10]}^{[11]}

If any of these conditions are not fulfilled, there will be deviations from Beer–Lambert law.

The Beer–Lambert law is not compatible with Maxwell's equations.^{[12]} Being strict, the law does not describe the transmittance through a medium, but the propagation within that medium. It can be made compatible with Maxwell's equations if the transmittance of a sample with solute is ratioed against the transmittance of the pure solvent which explains why it works so well in spectrophotometry. As this is not possible for pure media, the uncritical employment of the Beer–Lambert law can easily generate errors of the order of 100% or more.^{[12]} In such cases it is necessary to apply the Transfer-matrix method.

Recently it has also been demonstrated that Beer's law is a limiting law, since the absorbance is only approximately linearly depending on concentration. The reason is that the attenuation coefficient also depends on concentration and density, even in the absence of any interactions. These changes are, however, usually negligible except for high concentrations and large oscillator strength.^{[13]}

Chemical analysis by spectrophotometry

Beer–Lambert law can be applied to the analysis of a mixture by spectrophotometry, without the need for extensive pre-processing of the sample. An example is the determination of bilirubin in blood plasma samples. The spectrum of pure bilirubin is known, so the molar attenuation coefficient *ε* is known. Measurements of decadic attenuation coefficient *μ*10 are made at one wavelength *λ* that is nearly unique for bilirubin and at a second wavelength in order to correct for possible interferences. The amount concentration *c* is then given by

For a more complicated example, consider a mixture in solution containing two species at amount concentrations *c*1 and *c*2. The decadic attenuation coefficient at any wavelength *λ* is, given by

Therefore, measurements at two wavelengths yields two equations in two unknowns and will suffice to determine the amount concentrations *c*1 and *c*2 as long as the molar attenuation coefficient of the two components, *ε*1 and *ε*2 are known at both wavelengths. This two system equation can be solved using Cramer's rule. In practice it is better to use linear least squares to determine the two amount concentrations from measurements made at more than two wavelengths. Mixtures containing more than two components can be analyzed in the same way, using a minimum of *N* wavelengths for a mixture containing *N* components.

The law is used widely in infra-red spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy for analysis of polymer degradation and oxidation (also in biological tissue) as well as to measure the concentration of various compounds in different food samples. The carbonyl group attenuation at about 6 micrometres can be detected quite easily, and degree of oxidation of the polymer calculated.

Beer–Lambert law in the atmosphere

This law is also applied to describe the attenuation of solar or stellar radiation as it travels through the atmosphere. In this case, there is scattering of radiation as well as absorption. The optical depth for a slant path is *τ*′ = *mτ*, where *τ* refers to a vertical path, *m* is called the relative airmass, and for a plane-parallel atmosphere it is determined as *m* = sec *θ* where *θ* is the zenith angle corresponding to the given path. The Beer–Lambert law for the atmosphere is usually written

where each *τ**x* is the optical depth whose subscript identifies the source of the absorption or scattering it describes:

a refers to aerosols (that absorb and scatter);

g are uniformly mixed gases (mainly carbon dioxide (CO2) and molecular oxygen (O2) which only absorb);

NO2 is nitrogen dioxide, mainly due to urban pollution (absorption only);

RS are effects due to Raman scattering in the atmosphere;

w is water vapour absorption;

O3 is ozone (absorption only);

r is Rayleigh scattering from molecular oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2) (responsible for the blue color of the sky);

the selection of the attenuators which have to be considered depends on the wavelength range and can include various other compounds. This can include tetraoxygen, HONO, formaldehyde, glyoxal, a series of halogen radicals and others.

*m* is the *optical mass* or *airmass factor*, a term approximately equal (for small and moderate values of *θ*) to 1/cos *θ*, where *θ* is the observed object's zenith angle (the angle measured from the direction perpendicular to the Earth's surface at the observation site). This equation can be used to retrieve *τ*a, the aerosol optical thickness, which is necessary for the correction of satellite images and also important in accounting for the role of aerosols in climate.

See also

Applied spectroscopy

Atomic absorption spectroscopy

Absorption spectroscopy

Cavity ring-down spectroscopy

Infra-red spectroscopy

Job plot

Laser absorption spectrometry

Polymer degradation

Scientific laws named after people

Quantification of nucleic acids

Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

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