Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking. An artist carves an image into the surface of a block of wood—typically with gouges—leaving the printing parts level with the surface while removing the non-printing parts. Areas that the artist cuts away carry no ink, while characters or images at surface level carry the ink to produce the print. The block is cut along the grain of the wood (unlike wood engraving where the block is cut in the end-grain). The surface is covered with ink by rolling over the surface with an ink-covered roller (brayer), leaving ink upon the flat surface but not in the non-printing areas.
Multiple colours can be printed by keying the paper to a frame around the woodblocks (using a different block for each color). The art of carving the woodcut can be called "xylography", but this is rarely used in English for images alone, although that and "xylographic" are used in connexion with blockbooks, which are small books containing text and images in the same block. Single-leaf woodcut is a term for a woodcut presented as a single image or print, as opposed to a book illustration.
Division of labour
In both Europe and the Far East, traditionally the artist only designed the woodcut, and the block-carving was left to specialist craftsmen, called block-cutters, or Formschneider in Germany, a few of whom became well known in their own right. Among these the best known are the sixteenth century Hieronymus Andreae (who additionally used "Formschneider" as his surname), Hans Lützelburger and Jost de Negker, all of whom ran workshops and additionally operated as printers and publishers. The formschneider in turn handed the block on to specialist printers. There were further specialists who made the blank blocks.
This is why woodcuts are at times described by museums or books as "designed by" rather than "by" an artist; but most authorities don't use this distinction. The division of labour had the advantage that a trained artist could adapt to the medium relatively easily, without needing to learn the use of woodworking tools.
There were various methods of transferring the artist's drawn design onto the block for the cutter to follow. Either the drawing would be made directly onto the block (often whitened first), or a drawing on paper was glued to the block. Either way, the artist's drawing was destroyed throughout the cutting process. Other methods were used, including tracing.
In both Europe and the Far East, such as Japan and China, in the early twentieth century a few artists began to do the whole process themselves. In Japan, this movement was called Sōsaku hanga, as opposed to the Shin hanga movement, which retained the traditional methods. In the West, a large number of artists used the easier technique of linocut instead.
Methods of printing
Compared to intaglio techniques like etching and engraving, only low pressure is required to print. As a relief method, it is only necessary to ink the block and bring it into firm and even contact with the paper or cloth to achieve an acceptable print. In Europe a variety of woods including boxwood and several nut and fruit woods like pear or cherry were commonly used; in Japan, the wood of the cherry species Prunus serrulata was preferred.
There are three methods of printing to consider:
- Stamping: Used for a large number of fabrics and most early European woodcuts (1400–40). These were printed by putting the paper/fabric on a table or additional flat surface with the block on top, and pressing or hammering the back of the block
- Rubbing: Apparently the most common method for Far Eastern printing on paper at all times. Used for European woodcuts and block-books later in the fifteenth century, and quite widely for cloth. Also used for a large number of Western woodcuts from about 1910 to the present. The block goes face up on a table, with the paper or fabric on top. The back is rubbed with a "hard pad, a flat piece of wood, a burnisher, or a leather frotton". A traditional Japanese tool used for this is called a baren. Later in Japan, complex wooden mechanisms were used to help hold the woodblock perfectly still and to apply proper pressure in the printing process. This was especially helpful once multiple colours were introduced and had to be applied with precision atop previous ink layers.
- Printing in a press: presses only seem to have been used in Asia in relatively recent times. Printing-presses were used from about 1480 for European prints and block-books, and before that for woodcut book illustrations. Simple weighted presses might have been used in Europe before the print-press, but firm evidence is lacking. A deceased Abbess of Mechelen in 1465 had "unum instrumentum ad imprintendum scripturas et ymagines ... cum 14 aliis lapideis printis"—"an instrument for printing texts and pictures ... with 14 stones for printing." This is probably too early to be a Gutenberg-type printing press in that location.
Woodcut or woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns that was used widely throughout East Asia. It originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later on paper.The earliest woodblock printed fragments to survive are from China and are of silk printed with flowers in three colours from the Han Dynasty (before AD 220). "In the thirteenth century the Chinese technique of blockprinting was transmitted to Europe." Paper arrived in Europe, additionally from China via Islamic Spain, slightly later, and was being manufactured in Italy by the end of the thirteenth century, and in Burgundy and Germany by the end of the fourteenth.
In Europe, woodcut is the oldest technique used for old master prints, developing about 1400, by using, on paper, existing techniques for printing. One of the more ancient woodcuts on paper that can be seen today is The Fire Madonna (Madonna del Fuoco, in the Italian language), in the Cathedral of Forlì, in Italy.
The explosion of sales of cheap woodcuts in the middle of the century led to a fall in standards, and a large number of popular prints were quite crude. The development of hatching followed on rather later than engraving. Michael Wolgemut was significant in making German woodcuts more sophisticated from about 1475, and Erhard Reuwich was the first to use cross-hatching (far harder to do than engraving or etching). Both of these produced mainly book-illustrations, as did various Italian artists who were additionally raising standards there at the same period. At the end of the century Albrecht Dürer brought the Western woodcut to a level that, arguably, has never been surpassed, and greatly increased the status of the single-leaf woodcut (i.e. an image sold separately).
As woodcut can be easily printed together with movable type, because both are relief-printed, it was the main medium for book illustrations until the late-sixteenth century. The first woodcut book illustration dates to about 1461, only a few years after the beginning of printing with movable type, printed by Albrecht Pfister in Bamberg. Woodcut was used less often for individual ("single-leaf") fine-art prints from about 1550 until the late nineteenth century, when interest revived. It remained important for popular prints until the nineteenth century in most of Europe, and later in a few places.
The art reached a high level of technical and artistic development in East Asia and Iran. In Japan woodblock printing is called "moku hanga", and was introduced in the seventeenth century for both books and art. The popular "floating world" genre of ukiyo-e originated in the second half of the seventeenth century, with prints in monochrome or two colours. Sometimes these were hand-coloured after printing. Later prints with a large number of colours were developed. Japanese woodcut became a major artistic form, although at the time it was accorded a much lower status than painting. It continued to develop through to the twentieth century.
This technique just carves the image in mostly thin lines, not unlike a rather crude engraving. The block is printed in the normal way, so that most of the print is black with the image created by white lines. This process was invented by the sixteenth-century Swiss artist Urs Graf, but became most popular in the nineteenth and twentieth century, often in a modified form where images used large areas of white-line contrasted with areas in the normal black-line style. This was pioneered by Félix Vallotton.
In the 1860s, just as the Japanese themselves were fitting aware of Western art in general, Japanese prints began to reach Europe in considerable numbers, and became quite fashionable, especially in France. They had a great influence on a large number of artists, notably Édouard Manet, Pierre Bonnard, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Edgar Degas, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, Félix Vallotton and Mary Cassatt. In 1872 Jules Claretie dubbed the trend "Le Japonisme".
Though the Japanese influence was reflected in a large number of artistic media, including painting, it did lead to a revival of the woodcut in Europe, which had been in danger of extinction as a serious art medium. Most of the artists above, except for Félix Vallotton and Paul Gauguin, in fact used lithography, especially for coloured prints. See below for Japanese influence in illustrations for children's books.
Artists, notably Edvard Munch and Franz Masereel, continued to use the medium, which in Modernism came to appeal because it was relatively easy to complete the whole process, including printing, in a studio with little special equipment. The German Expressionists used woodcut a good deal.
Coloured woodcuts first appeared in ancient China. The oldest known are three Buddhist images dating to the tenth century. European woodcut prints with coloured blocks were invented in Germany in 1508 and are known as chiaroscuro woodcuts (see below). Notwithstanding colour didn't become the norm, as it did in Japan, in the ukiyo-e and additional forms.
In Europe and Japan, colour woodcuts were normally only used for prints rather than book illustrations. In China, where the individual print didn't develop until the nineteenth century, the reverse is true, and early colour woodcuts mostly occur in luxury books about art, especially the more prestigious medium of painting. The first known example is a book on ink-cakes printed in 1606, and colour technique reached its height in books on painting published in the seventeenth century. Notable examples are Hu Zhengyan's Treatise on the Paintings and Writings of the Ten Bamboo Studio of 1633, and the Mustard Seed Garden Painting Manual published in 1679 and 1701.
In Japan colour technique, called nishiki-e in its fully developed form, spread more widely, and was used for prints, from the 1760s on. Text was nearly always monochrome, as were images in books, but the growth of the popularity of ukiyo-e brought with it demand for ever increasing numbers of colours and complexity of techniques. By the nineteenth century most artists worked in colour. The stages of this development were:
- Sumizuri-e (墨摺り絵, "ink printed pictures") - monochrome printing using only black ink
- Benizuri-e (紅摺り絵, "crimson printed pictures") - red ink details or highlights added by hand after the printing process；green was at times used as well
- Tan-e (丹絵) - orange highlights using a red pigment called tan
- Aizuri-e (藍摺り絵, "indigo printed pictures"), Murasaki-e (紫絵, "purple pictures"), and additional styles that used a single colour in addition to, or instead of, black ink
- Urushi-e (漆絵) - a method that used glue to thicken the ink, emboldening the image; gold, mica and additional substances were often used to enhance the image further. Urushi-e can additionally refer to paintings using lacquer instead of paint; lacquer was quite rarely if ever used on prints.
- Nishiki-e (錦絵, "brocade pictures") - a method that used multiple blocks for separate portions of the image, so a number of colours could achieve incredibly complex and detailed images; a separate block was carved to apply only to the portion of the image designated for a single color. Registration marks called kentō (見当) ensured correspondence between the application of each block.
In the nineteenth century a number of different methods of colour printing using woodcut (technically Chromoxylography) were developed in Europe. George Baxter patented in 1835 a method using an intaglio line plate (or occasionally a lithograph), printed in black or a dark colour, and then overprinted with up to twenty different colours from woodblocks. Edmund Evans used relief and wood throughout, with up to eleven different colours, and latterly specialised in illustrations for children's books, using fewer blocks but overprinting non-solid areas of colour to achieve blended colours. Artists such as Randolph Caldecott, Walter Crane and Kate Greenaway were influenced by the Japanese prints now available and fashionable in Europe to create a suitable style, with flat areas of colour.
In the twentieth century, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner of the Die Brücke group developed a process of producing coloured woodcut prints using a single block applying different colours to the block with a brush à la poupée and then printing (halfway between a woodcut and a monotype). A remarkable example of this technique is the 1915 Portrait of Otto Müller woodcut print from the collection of the British Museum.
Gallery of Asian woodcuts
Chiaroscuro woodcuts are old master prints in woodcut using two or more blocks printed in different colours; they don't necessarily feature strong contrasts of light and dark. They were first produced to achieve similar effects to chiaroscuro drawings. After a few early experiments in book-printing, the true chiaroscuro woodcut conceived for two blocks was probably first invented by Lucas Cranach the Elder in Germany in 1508 or 1509, though he backdated a few of his first prints and added tone blocks to a few prints first produced for monochrome printing, swiftly followed by Hans Burgkmair the Elder. Despite Vasari's claim for Italian precedence in Ugo da Carpi, it is clear that his, the first Italian examples, date to around 1516
Other printmakers to use the technique include Hans Baldung Grien and Parmigianino. In the German states the technique was in use largely throughout the first decades of the sixteenth century, but Italians continued to use it throughout the century, and later artists like Goltzius at times made use of it. In the German style, one block usually had only lines and is called the "line block", whilst the additional block or blocks had flat areas of colour and are called "tone blocks". The Italians usually used only tone blocks, for a quite different effect, much closer to the chiaroscuro drawings the term was originally used for, or watercolours.
- Ars moriendi
- Dürer's Rhinoceros
- Emblem book
- Four horsemen of the Apocalypse
- Hypnerotomachia Poliphili
- Just So Stories
- Lubok prints
The Swedish printmaker Torsten Billman (1909-1989) developed throughout the 1930s and 1940s a woodcut with several grey tones from the ordinary printing ink. The art historian Gunnar Jungmarker (1902-1983) at Nationalmuseum called this technique - grisaille woodcut. A time consuming printing process, exclusively for hand printing, with several grey-wood blocks aside from the black and white key block.
- Irving Amen
- Mary Azarian
- Aubrey Beardsley
- Hans Baldung
- Leonard Baskin
- Gustave Baumann
- Torsten Billman
- Carroll Thayer Berry
- Erich Buchholz
- Hans Burgkmair
- Domenico Campagnola
- Ugo da Carpi
- Billy Childish
- Salvador Dalí
- Gustave Doré
- Albrecht Dürer
- M. C. Escher
- James Flora
- Antonio Frasconi
- Robert Gibbings
- Vincent van Gogh
- Urs Graf
- Suzuki Harunobu
- Jacques Hnizdovsky
- Tom Huck
- Stephen Huneck
- Alfred Garth Jones
- Hussein el gebaly
- Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
- Käthe Kollwitz
- J.J. Lankes
- Frans Masereel
- Hishikawa Moronobu
- Edvard Munch
- Emil Nolde
- Jacob Pins
- J. G. Posada
- Endi E. Poskovic
- Hannah Tompkins
- Henriette Tirman
- Urs Graf
- Clément Serveau
- Paul Signac
- Eric Slater
- Marcelo Soares
- Félix Vallotton
- Karel Vik
- Leopold Wächtler
- Susan Dorothea White