Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved. The term "protected area" also includes Marine Protected Areas , the boundaries of which will include some area of ocean, and Transboundary Protected Areas that overlap multiple countries which remove the borders inside the area for conservation and economic purposes. There are over 161,000 protected areas in the world (as of October 2010) [2] with more added daily, representing between 10 and 15 percent of the world's land surface area. [3] [4] [37] By contrast, only 1.17% of the world's oceans is included in the world's ~6,800 Marine Protected Areas. [7]

Protected areas are essential for biodiversity conservation, often providing habitat and protection from hunting for threatened and endangered species . Protection helps maintain ecological processes that cannot survive in most intensely managed landscapes and seascapes.


Generally, protected areas are understood to be those in which human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. The definition that has been widely accepted across regional and global frameworks has been provided by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in its categorisation guidelines for protected areas. The definition is as follows:

"A clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values." [38]