List of non-state terrorist incidents

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The following is a list of terrorist incidents that have not been carried out by a state or its forces (see state terrorism and state-sponsored terrorism). Assassinations are listed at List of assassinated people.

Definitions of terrorism vary, so incidents listed here are restricted to those that:

  • are not approved by the legitimate authority of a recognized state
  • are illegally perpetrated against people or property
  • are done to further political, religious, or ideological objectives

Pre-1800

Scholars dispute what might be called terrorism in earlier periods. The modern sense of terrorism emerged in the mid-19th century. [15]

1800–1899

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator Part of
1865–1877 Murders c. 3,000 unknown United States c. 3,000 Freedmen and their Republican Party allies are killed by the Ku Klux Klan and well-organized campaigns of violence by other local whites in a campaign of terrorist violence that weakened the reconstructionist governments in the Southern United States and helped re-establish legitimized segregation. [16] [17] Ku Klux Klan Reconstruction
13 December 1867 Prison escape 12 120 United Kingdom The "Clerkenwell Outrage": a bomb was exploded next to a wall of Clerkenwell Prison as an attempt to abet the escape of an arms dealer Fenian Society
1880 Attempted Assassination 0 0 Russia Attempted assassination of General Mikhail Loris-Melikov
1881 Assassination by Bombing 2 12 St.Petersburg, Russia Assassination of Tsar Alexander II of Russia. Nikolay Rysakov and Ignacy Hryniewiecki members of 'Narodnaya Volya ' terrorist group.
1881-5 Bombing 0 (+3) 98 United Kingdom Fenian dynamite campaign Irish Republican Brotherhood
1884 Assassination 2 0 Russia Assassination of Colonel Soudekine, Chief of Police. Nihilist movement
4 May 1886 Bombing 7 (+4) 160+ Chicago Haymarket Affair. A peaceful rally in Haymarket, Chicago, Illinois, is disrupted when a bomb was detonated as police were dispersing the public demonstration. FOTLU
23 July 1892 Assassination attempt 0 1 (+1) Pittsburgh Alexander Berkman, a Russian expatriate, attempts to assassinate Henry Clay Frick, an American industrialist, financier, and art patron, in Pittsburgh. Berkman is arrested and Frick survives. Berkman claims inspiration from the Haymarket Affair. Alexander Berkman
9 December 1893 Bombing 0 20 Paris French anarchist Auguste Vaillant bombs the French Chamber of Deputies injuring 20 deputies. Auguste Vaillant
26 August 1896 Hijacking 10+ 0 Constantinople, Ottoman Empire Occupation of the Ottoman Bank by Armenian separatists. A resulting anti-Armenian pogrom killed around 6,000 individuals. Armenian Revolutionary Federation

1900–1929

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator Part of
29 July 1900 Assassination 1 0 Monza, Italy Gaetano Bresci and Italian-American Anarchist assassinated Umberto I of Italy Gaetano Bresci
15 April 1902 Assassination 1 0 St.Petersburg, Russia Minister of the Interior Dmitry Sipyagin was assassinated in the Marinsky Theatre. Socialist Revolutionary Stepan Balmashov
28 April – 1 May 1903 Bombings 0 (+4) Thessaloniki, Ottoman Empire Members of the Boatmen of Thessaloníki, a Bulgarian anarchist group, carry out a series of bombings in Thessaloniki Boatmen of Thessaloníki
18 May 1904 Kidnapping 0 2 kidnapped Morocco Ion Perdicaris and Cromwell Varley are kidnapped and held for ransom by bandit Mulai Ahmed er Raisuli in Morocco. [18] Mulai Ahmed er Raisuli
15 February 1905 Bombing 2 1+ Russia Assassination of Grand Duke Serge Alexandrovich Romanov by Socialist-revolutionaries. His coach driver Andrei Rudinkin was also killed. Socialist Revolutionary Ivan Kalyayev
25 August 1906 Bombing 28 Several Aptekarsky Island, Russia 28 people are killed when three terrorists bombed a reception in an attempt to assassinate Pyotr Stolypin. Union of Socialists Revolutionaries Maximalists
11/12 July 1908 Bombing 1 23 Malmö, Sweden Night between 11 and 12 July: Bombing of the boat Amalthea where British strikebreakers lived by Anton Nilsson One was killed and 23 wounded. Anton Nilsson
1 October 1910 Bombing 21 105+ Los Angeles, United States Los Angeles Times bombing kills 21 people and wounds over 100 others. Lone wolf (terrorism)
14 September 1911 Shooting 1 0 Kiev, Russia Assassination of Pyotyr Stolypin Russian Prime Minister Dmitri Bogrov
1912-14 various 1 0 United Kingdom Protest campaign by militant suffragettes campaigning for women's right to vote, including acts of disruption and violence aimed at property Women's Social and Political Union
June 1914 Shooting 2 1 Sarajevo, Austria-Hungary Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. Gavrilo Princip
22 July 1916 Bombing 10 40 San Francisco, United States Preparedness Day Bombing was a bombing in San Francisco, California on 22 July 1916, when the city held a parade in anticipation of the United States' entry into World War I. During the parade, a suitcase bomb was detonated, killing ten and wounding forty. Galleanist Anarchists (suspected)
16 September 1920 Bombing 38 300 New York City, United States Wall Street bombing kills 38 people and wounds 300 others. [19] Galleanist Anarchists (suspected) Red Scare
14 October 1920 Bombings 1 10 Trieste, Italy In Trieste, nationalists throw six bombs at the editorial office of a Socialist newspaper, resulting in one death and ten injuries. [20] Italian Nationalists
15 October 1920 Bombings 0 2 Milan, Italy In Milan, anarchists are responsible for throwing two bombs at a hotel holding a British delegation attending the Milan International Conference; there are two injuries. [20] Anarchists
8 December 1920 Bombing 3 3 Bucharest, Romania A bomb placed by a left-wing terrorist group blows up in the Romanian Senate, killing the Minister of Justice and two other senators. Likewise, President of the Senate and two Orthodox bishops are severely injured. Max Goldstein, Leon Lichtblau and Saul Ozias
31 May 1921 Riot 39-300 800+ Tulsa, United States The Tulsa race riot killed at least 39 people and injured over 800. [21] Ku Klux Klan
13 December 1921 Bombing 100 Bolgrad, Romania The Bolgrad palace bombing occurred when a bomb thrown by Bessarabian separatists at the Bolgrad palace, killed 100 soldiers and police officers. [22] Bessarabian separatists Union of Bessarabia with Romania
31 October 1923 Shooting 1 1 Dublin, Irish Free State Far-right extremists shot two Jewish men as they walked across St. Stephen's Green in Dublin. One of the men was killed. [23] Far-right extremists
16 April 1925 Bombing 150 ~500 Sofia, Bulgaria St Nedelya Church assault – The Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) blew up the church's roof during the funeral service of General Konstantin Georgiev, who had been killed in a previous Communist assault on 14 April. 150 people, mainly from the country's political and military elite, were killed in the attack and around 500 were injured. [24] Bulgarian Communist Party

1930–1949

  • Kingdom of Hungary, 1931: A Hungarian terrorist, Szilveszter Matuska detonated a personnel train at Biatorbágy. 22 passengers died in the attack, 17 others were severely injured. [25]
  • Mandatory Palestine 1936–39: 1936–39 Arab revolt, Palestine Arab "gang and terrorist activities" [27] against British colonial rule, and Jewish immigrants.
  • Mandatory Palestine 1937–48: The Irgun are responsible for numerous attacks in British-mandated Palestine.
  • Sweden 1940, 3 March: Politically motivated bombing targeted at the communist newspaper Norrskensflamman (Northern Flame) by various perpetrators. 5 persons were killed, 2 of which were children, along with 5 others injured.
  • United States 1940–1956: George Metesky, the "Mad Bomber", places over 30 bombs in New York City in public places such as Grand Central Terminal and The Paramount Theater, injuring ten during this period, in protest against the local electric utility. He also sends many threatening letters. [28]
  • United States 1940, 4 July: Time bomb is recovered from the British Pavilion at the 1939 New York World's Fair, two policemen are killed. [29]
  • Mandatory Palestine 1946, 22 July: The King David Hotel bombing by Zionist paramilitary group Irgun kills 91 and injures 46 non-fatally.
  • Romania 1947, 25 July: Three Romanian terrorists kill an aircrew member aboard a Romanian airliner. [30] This is regarded as the first aircraft hijack resulting in a fatality.
  • Mandatory Palestine 1948, 22 February, Ben Yehuda Street bombings: three British Army trucks led by an armoured car driven by Arab irregulars and British deserters exploded on Ben Yehuda Street killing 58 Jewish civilians and injuring 140.
  • Philippines 1949, 7 May: thirteen people are killed as a Philippine airliner explodes in flight travelling from Daet to Manila. A time bomb detonates 30 minutes after departure near Alabat Island. [31]
  • Syria 1949, 5 August: 12 killed and dozens injured in the Menarsha synagogue attack, Damascus.

1950–1969

1970–present

By country

See also

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