This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1.
The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall. Some countries, notably Thailand, do not report total population, exclusively counting citizens; for total populations an international agency must issue an estimate.
Figures used in this chart are based on the most up to date estimate or projections by the national census authority where available, and are usually rounded off. Where updated national data are not available, figures are based on the projections for 2017 by the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 
Because the compiled figures are not collected at the same time in every country, or at the same level of accuracy, the resulting numerical comparisons may create misleading conclusions. Furthermore, the addition of figures from all countries may not equal the world total. A handful of nations have not conducted a census in over 30 years, providing high error margin estimates only.
Areas that form integral parts of sovereign states, such as the countries of the United Kingdom, are counted as part of the sovereign states concerned. Not included are other entities, such as the European Union,  that are not sovereign states, and independent territories that do not have permanent populations, such as various countries' claims to Antarctica.
Sovereign states and dependencies by population
Note: All dependent territories or constituent countries that are parts of sovereign states are shown in italics.
|Rank||Country (or dependent territory)||Population||Date||% of world population||Source|
- List of continents by population
- List of countries and territories by population density
- List of countries by past and future population
- List of countries by population growth rate
- List of countries by population (United Nations)
- List of countries by refugee population
- List of countries by urban population
- List of regional organizations by population
- List of religious populations
- List of sovereign states and dependencies by total fertility rate
- Various lists of countries by population
- World population
Lists of countries by population
- The European Union is asui generissupranational union whose sovereign members delegate to it by treaty certain powers that are often exercised by sovereign states. Its combined population has been estimated at 510,284,430 on January 1, 2016, and it would be ranked 3rd if it were included in the list. It has 6.73% of the world's population — see. European Commission.
- The census figure refers to mainland China, excluding its special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, the former of which returned to Chinese sovereignty on 1 July 1997 and the latter on 20 December 1999.
- Does not include the figures of Lakshwadeep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
- Population of the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
- Including the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol, Russia's administrative areas on the Crimean Peninsula which are internationally recognized as Ukrainian territories under Russian occupation.
- Population of the 18 regions of France. Excluding Overseas Territories and Collectivities: French Polynesia, New Caledonia, French Southern and Antarctic Land, Clipperton Island, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon and Wallis and Futuna.
- Excluding the 14 Overseas Territories, which are shown separately.
- Including Zanzibar.
- Excluding the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and City of Sevastopol, Ukraine's administrative areas on the Crimean Peninsula which are disputed with andde factoadministered by Russia. However includes all territory in the Donbass region where there are ongoing insurgencies by separatist forces.
- Itexcludesthe population of the disputed territory of the Western Sahara (the so-called Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic).
- Taiwan (Republic of China) also includes the minor islands of Kinmen, Matsu, Penghu, etc.
- Includes Puntland and Somaliland.
- Excludes Kosovo.
- Medium Variant
- Excludes Abkhazia (242,862, census 2011) and South Ossetia (53,559, census 2015).
- Excludes Transnistria.
- Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from 110 out of 193 United Nations member states.
- Administration is split between Morocco and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, both of which claim the entire territory.
- De factoindependent,de jurepart of Moldova.
- De factoindependent,de jurepart of Cyprus.
- Abkhazia's status is disputed. It considers itself to be an independent state, but this is recognised by only a few other countries. The Georgian government and most of the world's other states consider Abkhaziade jurea part of Georgia's territory. In Georgia's official subdivision it is an autonomous republic, whose government sits in exile in Tbilisi.
- De factoindependent,de jurepart of Azerbaijan.
- South Ossetia's status is disputed. It considers itself to be an independent state, but this is recognised by only a few other countries. The Georgian government and most of the world's other states consider South Ossetiade jurea part of Georgia's territory.