The Land Rover Defender (initially called the Land Rover Ninety and Land Rover One Ten ) is a British four-wheel drive off-road vehicle developed from the original Land Rover Series launched in June 1948. After a continuous run of 67 years  production finally ended on 29 January 2016 when the last Defender, H166 HUE, rolled off the production line at 09:22hrs GMT.  Jaguar Land Rover announced their intention to launch a completely new Defender.
Name and badge distinctions
The model was introduced in 1983 as "Land Rover One Ten", and in 1984 the "Land Rover Ninety" was added - the numbers representing the respective wheelbases in inches. (In fact the Ninety was nearer 93 inches at 92.9".) The number was spelled in full in advertising and in handbooks and manuals, and the vehicles also carried badges above the radiator grille which read "Land Rover 90" or "Land Rover 110", with the number rendered numerically. The Ninety and One Ten replaced the earlier Land Rover Series , and at the time of launch, the only other Land Rover model in production was the Range Rover .
In 1989, a third model was brought out by Land Rover to be produced in parallel with the other two: the Land Rover Discovery . To avoid possible confusion, the 1991 model year Ninety and the One Ten were renamed the "Defender 90" and "Defender 110". These carried front badges that said "Defender", with a badge on the rear of the vehicle saying "Defender 90" or "Defender 110". The most recent model, from 2007-2016, still featured the space above the radiator for the badge but was blank. Instead had "Land Rover" spelled across the leading edge of the bonnet in raised individual letters, in keeping with the Discovery and Freelander. At the rear was a new style of '"Defender" badge with an underlining "swoosh". On these last models there are no badges defining the wheelbase model of the vehicle.
The 127-inch (3,226 mm) wheelbase Land Rover 127, available from 1985, was always marketed with the name rendered numerically. Following the adoption of the Defender name, it became the "Defender 130", although the wheelbase remained unchanged.
The North American Specification (NAS) Defender 110 sold for the 1993 model year carried a badge above the radiator grille which read "Defender," whereas the NAS Defender 90 sold for the 1994 to 1997 model years had "Land Rover" spelled across the top of the radiator grille in individual letter decals. NAS Defenders also carried a cast plaque on the rear tub in the original style of the Series Station wagons with "Defender 110" or "Defender 90" below the Land Rover lozenge and the vehicle's unique limited edition production run number.
Land Rover 90 and 110
Production of the model now known as the Defender began in 1983 as the Land Rover 110, a name which reflected the 110-inch (2,800 mm) length of the wheelbase. The Land Rover 90, with 93-inch (2,362 mm) wheelbase, and Land Rover 127, with 127-inch (3,226 mm) wheelbase, soon followed.
Superficially there is little to distinguish the post-1983 vehicles from the Series III Land Rover. A full-length bonnet, revised grille, plus the fitting of wheel arch extensions to cover wider-track axles are the most noticeable changes. Initially the conservative engineering department insisted that the Land Rover was also available with a part-time 4WD system familiar to derivatives produced since 1949. However the part-time system failed to sell and was quickly dropped from the options list by 1984. While the engine and other body panels carried over from the Series III , mechanically the 90 and 110 were modernized, including:
- Coil springs , offering a more comfortable ride and improved axle articulation
- A permanent four-wheel-drive system derived from the Range Rover , featuring a two-speed transfer gearbox with a lockable centre differential
- A modernised interior
- A taller one-piece windscreen
- A new series of progressively more powerful and modern engines
The 110 was launched in 1983, and the 90 followed in 1984. From 1984, wind-up windows were fitted (Series models and very early 110s had sliding panels), and a 2.5-litre (153 cu in), 68 horsepower (51 kW) diesel engine was introduced. This was based on the earlier 2.3-litre (140 cu in) engine, but had a more modern fuel-injection system as well as increased capacity. A low compression version of the 3.5-litre (214 cu in) V8 Range Rover engine transformed performance. It was initially available in the 110 with a Range Rover LT95 four-speed transmission with integral transfer case and vacuum operated differential lock, then later in conjunction with a high strength "Santana" five-speed transmission.
This period saw Land Rover market the utility Land Rover as a private recreational vehicle. While the basic pick-up, 4x4 and van versions were still working vehicles, the County 4x4s were sold as multi-purpose family vehicles, featuring improved interior trim and more comfortable seats. This change was reflected in Land Rover starting what had long been common practice in the car industry — detail changes and improvements to the County model from year to year in order to attract new buyers and to encourage existing owners to trade in for a new vehicle. These changes included different exterior styling graphics and colour options, and the introduction of new options, such as radio-cassette players, Rostyle wheels, headlamp wash and wipe systems, as well as accessories such as surfboard carriers and bike racks. The switch from leaf spring to coil spring suspension was a key part of the new model's success. It offered improved off-road ability, load capacity, handling, and ride comfort.
The 127 (and 130)
From 1983, Land Rover introduced a third wheelbase to its utility line-up, a 127-inch (3,226 mm) wheelbase vehicle designed to accommodate larger, heavier loads than the 110. Called the "Land Rover 127", it was designed specifically with use by utility and electrical companies in mind, as well as military usage. In its standard form, it is a four-door six-seater consisting of the front half of a 110 4x4, and the rear of a 110 high-capacity pick up (HCPU).logic was that this allowed a workcrew and their equipment to be carried in one vehicle at the same time. The 127 could carry up to a 1.4 tonnes (1.4 long tons; 1.5 short tons) payload, compared to the 1.03 tonnes (1.01 long tons; 1.14 short tons) payload of the 110 and the 0.6 tonnes (0.59 long tons; 0.66 short tons) of the 90.
Land Rover 127s were built on a special production line, and all started life as 110 4x4 chassis (the model was initially marketed as the 110 crew cab, before the more logical 127 name was adopted). These were then cut in two and the 17 inches (432 mm) of extra chassis length welded on before the two original halves were reunited. These models did not receive their own dedicated badging like the other two models, instead they used the same metal grille badges as used on the Series III 109 V8 models, that simply said "Land-Rover".
Although the standard body-style was popular, the 127 was a common basis for conversion to specialist uses, such as mobile workshops, ambulances, fire engines and flatbed transports. In South Africa, the Land Rover assembly plant offered a 127 4x4 with seating for 15. Land Rover also offered the 127 as a bare chassis, with just front bodywork and bulkhead, for easy conversion.
Initially held back by the low power of the Land Rover engines (other than the thirsty petrol V8 engine ), the 127 benefited from the improvements to the line-up, and by 1990 was only available with the two highest power engines, the 134 hp (100 kW) 3.5-litre V8 petrol, and the 85 hp (63 kW) 2.5-litre turbo diesel .
The original 110 of 1983 was available with the same engine line-up as the Series III vehicles it replaced, namely 2.25-litre (137 cu in) petrol and diesel engines, and a 3.5-litre (210 cu in) V8 petrol unit, although a small number of 3.2-litre (200 cu in) V8s were produced. In 1981 the 2.25 l engines were upgraded from three- to five- crankshaft bearings in preparation for the planned increases in capacity and power.
The 2.5-litre version of the diesel engine, displacing 2,495 cubic centimetres (152.3 cu in) and producing 68 hp (51 kW), was introduced in both the 110 and the newly arrived 90. This was a long- stroke version of the venerable 2.25-litre unit, fitted with updated fuel injection equipment and a revised cylinder head for quieter, smoother and more efficient running. A timing belt also replaced the older engine's chain .
In 1985 the petrol units were upgraded. An enlarged four-cylinder engine was introduced. This 83 hp (62 kW) engine shared the same block and cooling system (as well as other ancillary components) as the diesel unit. Unlike the diesel engine, this new 2.5-litre petrol engine retained the chain-driven camshaft of its 2.25-litre predecessor. At the same time, the 114 hp (85 kW) V8 was also made available in the 90- the first time a production short- wheelbase Land Rover had been given V8 power. The V8 on both models was now mated to an all-new five-speed LT85 manual gearbox .
The year 1986 saw improvements in engines to match the more advanced offerings by Japanese competitors. The "Diesel Turbo" engine was introduced in September, a lightly turbocharged version of the existing 2.5-litre diesel, with several changes to suit the higher power output, including a re-designed crankshaft , teflon -coated pistons and nimonic steel exhaust valves to cope with the higher internal temperatures. Similarly, an eight-bladed cooling fan was fitted, together with an oil cooler. The changes for the turbo diesel were kept as slight as possible, in the aim of making the car saleable in Land Rover's traditional export markets across the globe.
The 2.5 diesel, 2.5 petrol and Diesel Turbo engines all shared the same block castings and other components such as valve-gear and cooling system parts, allowing them to be built on the same production line. The Diesel Turbo produced 85 hp (63 kW), a 13% increase over the naturally aspirated unit, and a 31.5% increase in torque to 150 lb·ft (203 N·m) at 1800 rpm. Externally, turbo-diesel vehicles differed from other models only by having an air intake grille in the left-hand wing to supply cool air to the turbo. The engine was adopted as the standard engine for UK and European markets. Early turbo-diesel engines gained a reputation for poor reliability, with major failures to the bottom-end and cracked pistons. A revised block and improved big end bearings were introduced in 1988, and a re-designed breather system in 1989. These largely solved the engine's problems, but it remained (like many early turbo-diesels) prone to failure if maintenance was neglected.
The new vehicles with their more modern engines, transmissions, and interiors reversed the huge decline in sales that took place in the 1980s (a 21% fall in a single year, 1980–1981). This growth was mainly in the domestic UK market and Europe. African, Australian and Middle-Eastern sales failed to recover significantly - Land Rover had not been immune to the poor reputation caused by poor build quality and unreliability which had afflicted the rest of British Leyland , of which Land Rover was still part. In these markets Japanese vehicles such as the Toyota Landcruiser and Nissan Patrol gradually took over what had been a lucrative export market for Land Rover for decades. Meanwhile, the company itself adopted more modern practices, such as using marketing campaigns to attract new buyers who would not previously have been expected to buy a Land Rover. The operation was streamlined, with most of the satellite factories in the West Midlands that built parts for the Land Rover being closed and production brought into the Solihull factory, which was expanded.
To maximise sales in Europe, Land Rover set up the Special Vehicles Division, which handled conversions, adaptations and limited production volume versions. The bulk of the division's work was the construction of stretched-wheelbase mobile workshops and crew carriers for British and European utility companies, often including six-wheel-drive conversions, but more unusual projects were undertaken, such as the construction of an amphibious Land Rover 90 used by the company as part of its sponsorship of Cowes Week from 1987 to 1990. The Special Projects Division also handled specialised military contracts, such as the building of a fleet of 127-inch (3,226 mm) V8-powered Rapier missile launchers for the British Army. The Rapier system actually consisted of three Land Rovers: a 127 which carried the launching and aiming equipment, and two 110s which carried the crew and additional equipment.
The biggest change to the Land Rover came in late 1990, when it became the Land Rover Defender, instead of the Land Rover 90 or 110. This was because in 1989 the company had introduced the Discovery model, requiring the original Land Rover to acquire a name. The Discovery also had a new turbodiesel engine, the 200TDi. This was also loosely based on the existing 2.5-litre turbo unit, and was built on the same production line, but had a modern alloy cylinder head, improved turbocharging, intercooling and direct injection . It retained the block, crankshaft , main bearings , cambelt system, and other ancillaries as the Diesel Turbo. The breather system included an oil separator filter to remove oil from the air in the system, thus finally solving the Diesel Turbo's main weakness of re-breathing its own sump oil. The 200Tdi, produced 107 hp (80 kW) and 195 lb·ft (264 N·m) of torque, which was nearly a 25% improvement on the engine it replaced (although as installed in the Defender the engine was de-tuned slightly from its original Discovery 111 hp (83 kW) specification due to changes associated with the turbo position and exhaust routing).
This engine finally allowed the Defender to cruise comfortably at high speeds, as well as tow heavy loads speedily on hills while still being economical. In theory it only replaced the older Diesel Turbo engine in the range, with the other four-cylinder engines (and the V8 petrol engine) still being available. However, the Tdi's combination of performance and economy meant that it took the vast majority of sales. Exceptions were the British Army and some commercial operators, who continued to buy vehicles with the 2.5-litre naturally aspirated diesel engine (in the army's case, this was because the Tdi was unable to be fitted with a 24 volt generator ). Small numbers of V8-engined Defenders were sold to users in countries with low fuel costs or who required as much power as possible (such as in Defenders used as fire engines and ambulances ).
Along with the 200Tdi engine, the 127's name was changed to the "Land Rover Defender 130". The wheelbase remained the same; the new figure was simply a tidying up exercise. More importantly, 130s were no longer built from "cut-and-shut" 110s, but had dedicated chassis built from scratch. The chassis retained the same basic structure as the 90 and 110 models, but with a longer wheelbase.
1994 saw another development of the Tdi engine, the 300Tdi. Although the 200Tdi had been a big step forward, it had been essentially a reworking of the old turbocharged diesel to accept a direct injection system. In contrast the 300Tdi was virtually new, despite the same capacity, and both the Defender and the Discovery had engines in the same state of tune, 111 bhp (83 kW), 195 lbf·ft (264 N·m).
Throughout the 1990s the vehicle attempted to climb more and more upmarket, while remaining true to its working roots. This trend was epitomised by limited-edition vehicles, such as the SV90 in 1992 with roll-over protection cage, alloy wheels and metallic paint and the 50th anniversary 90 in 1998, equipped with automatic transmission, air conditioning and Range Rover 4.0-litre V8 engine.
A new variant was the Defender 110 double cab, featuring a 4x4-style seating area, with an open pick up back. Although prototypes had been built in the Series days, it was not until the late 1990s that this vehicle finally reached production.
BMW M52 engine
Land Rover South Africa offered a unique Defender during the period the group was owned by BMW. Between 1997 and 2001, the Defender 90 and 110 were offered with a BMW petrol engine alongside the normal Tdi engine.  The engine was the BMW M52 2793 cc, straight-six, 24-valve engine as found in the BMW 328i, 528i, 728i, and the Z3. Power and torque output for this engine was 143 kW (192 hp) @ 5300 rpm and 280 N·m (207 lb·ft) @ 3950 rpm.  This option was offered due to a demand for a petrol-driven alternative to the diesel engine after production of the V8 Defender had ended. The vehicles were built at Rosslyn outside Pretoria.  Total production for the 2.8i was 1395, which included 656 Defender 90s and 739 Defender 110s.  This is an estimate based on sales figures from the National Association of Automobile Manufacturers of South Africa (NAAMSA). Early models were not speed-restricted, but later models were limited to 160 km/h.
According to Land Rover South Africa, "After the ground breaking amalgamation of the Rover Group with BMW internationally, the Defender 2.8i became the priority project of the two companies in February 1996 with the approval of both Land Rover UK and BMW AG. It is the first joint development since Land Rover South Africa was formed in January 1995."  Some of BMW's top engineers including Frank Isenberg, head of BMW Driver Training and the F87 M2 project, were part of the development team.  The project was initially top secret and in 2 to 3 weeks' time they had converted a Defender 110 with a 3.5 litre V8 into the first 2.8i. 
To adapt the BMW M52 engine to the Defender chassis, the engineers were able to utilize some of the parts from the recently developed BMW M51 diesel powered Range Rover 2.5 DSE. They used the clutch housing, clutch, flywheel, and slave cylinder from that vehicle to connect the engine to the R380 gearbox, but they had to produce a new clutch housing adaptor (bell housing) for the petrol M52 engine in the Defender. The unique clutch housing adaptor was necessary because the petrol M52 engine is tilted 10 degrees compared to the diesel M51 engine and it needed to be longer to match the input shaft of the R380 gearbox borrowed from the 300Tdi Defender. Due to the large diameter gearbox input shaft, the standard BMW pilot bearing could not be fitted, so a unique pilot bushing made of Oilite bronze was developed. It had an inside diameter of 7/8 inch with an outside diameter of 32 mm. A mixture of non-metric and metric specifications are common on Land Rovers. Other unique parts that were developed for the 2.8i were the air intake ducts both before and after the Donaldson FPG RadialSeal™ air cleaner,  engine mounts, radiator cowl, cooling hoses, fuel lines, clutch lines, air conditioning system, engine wiring, tachometer gauge, exhaust system, and a specially tuned Siemens MS41.0 DME with a Lucas 10AS alarm in place of the Drive Away Protection system (EWS) used on BMWs.  There were also major changes for the 1999 model year, which included updated instrumentation, different chassis and engine wiring, an updated cooling system with aluminum radiator, and an updated fuel system with new fuel tank.  The 1.667:1 gear ratio LT230 transfer box gave the vehicle a “rev happy” nature which delighted many off-road enthusiasts and made the vehicle particularly well suited for traversing a wide range of grueling terrain such as sand dunes.  The high gear ratio also helped the 2.8i sprint from 0–100 km/h in 9.3 seconds, making it the fastest production Defender ever made. 
To make the vehicle ready for production, prototypes were subjected to extensive testing.  According to Land Rover South Africa, "The development of the Defender 2.8 i engine included high speed testing, off roading, wading, high impact durability, trailer towing, hot and cold climate testing, high altitude and sea level tests as well as intensive component testing, both in South Africa and in the United Kingdom. No less than six vehicles underwent more than 500 000 kms [sic] of on and off road testing.”  The new BMW M52 Defender performed better than the V8 Defender it replaced in nearly every test. 
At least three of the original six 2.8i prototype vehicles were an NAS 1995 Defender 90 soft top that had been built right hand drive and received the BMW M52 engine in place of the 3.9-litre V8.  One of those protypes, the very first 90 2.8i which was painted Coniston Green and nicknamed "Green Mamba" by BMW engineers,  was sold to a private individual in South Africa, while the other two were sent back to the UK for additional tests. 
Land Rover South Africa also built 26 50th Anniversary edition 90s featuring the BMW M52 engine. The vehicles were painted Santorini Blue with special decal graphics on the sides. They also featured "colour-coded wheel arch mouldings, spot lamps, spare wheel carrier, free style alloy wheels, stainless steel A-frame Bullbar, two-tone solid paint, Willards welding and side runners" as well as "leather seats, radio and CD player, leather steering wheel and gear lever as well as a cooler box." Each were randomly numbered between 1 and 50, as 24 50th Anniversary edition 110s were also built, but with a diesel engine. The special 110 was called "Safari" and was painted in a limestone green colour. It featured everything included on the 50th Anniversary 90 with addition of "a roof rack and step ladder, as well as a wrap-around Bullbar in place of the A-frame" and "special cloth seats are used in favour of the leather ones. It is also fitted with a GPS (Pathfinder system)."  
In 1998, the Defender was fitted with an all-new 2.5-litre, five-cylinder in-line turbodiesel engine, badged the Td5 . The Tdi could not meet upcoming Euro III emissions regulations so the Td5 replaced the Tdi as the only available power unit. The engine used electronic control systems and produced 122 hp (91 kW) @ 4850 rpm, 11 hp (8 kW) more than the Tdi, with improved refinement. Traditionalists were critical of the electronic systems deployed throughout the vehicle, but concerns that these would fail when used in extreme conditions proved unfounded.
For the 2002 model year, further refinements were made to the Td5 engine to help it achieve ever-more stringent emission regulations. The "XS" 4x4 was introduced in 2002 as a top-specification level and the "County" package could be applied to every model in the line-up. XS models come with many "luxury" features, such as heated windscreen, heated seats, air conditioning, ABS and traction control and part-leather seats. At the same time other detail improvements were made including a dash centre console, improved instrument illumination and the availability of front electric windows for the first time on a Defender. The design faults of the two-piece rear 4x4 door were finally eradicated with a one-piece door featuring a rubber weather sealing strip for the rear window.
From Spring 2007 a series of changes were made to the Defender, most of which were implemented to meet emissions and safety legislation. The biggest change was to the drivetrain. The Td5 engine was replaced by an engine from Ford's DuraTorq line (AKA the Puma engine), built in their factory in Dagenham , making the Td5 the last Land Rover engine to be built in-house at Solihull . The engine chosen was from the ZSD family, being a version of the 2.4-litre four-cylinder unit also used in the highly successful Ford Transit . The engine's lubrication and sealing system was adapted for use in wet, dusty conditions and to maintain lubrication at extreme angles in off-road use. The power level remains the same at 122 hp (91 kW), but with a lower power peak speed for towing and better acceleration. Torque output rose from 221 lb·ft (300 N·m) to 265 lb·ft (359 N·m) due to the fitting of a variable-geometry turbocharger . This produces a wider spread of torque than the Td5, from 1500 rpm to 2000 rpm. The engine is mated to a new six-speed gearbox . First gear is lower than the previous gearbox for better low-speed control, whilst the higher sixth gear is intended to reduce noise and fuel consumption at high speeds.
The other major changes were to the interior. The dashboard layout of the original 110 from 1983 (which was in turn very similar to that used on the Series III from 1971) was replaced with a full-width fascia and different instrumentation. Instruments came from the Discovery 3 , and some of the centre panels come from the Ford Transit . Whilst some interior fittings from the British Leyland parts bin - some of which dated back to the 1970s - were finally dropped, the steering column switchgear (sourced from the Mk.1 Austin Metro ) and the ignition switch (from the Morris Marina ) was carried over from the previous interior. A new heater and ventilation system improved de-misting and heater performance.
Other interior changes were to the seating layout. Legislation from the European Union outlaws the inward-facing seats used in the rear of previous Land Rover 4x4s. The 2007 Defender replaced the four inward-facing seats with two forward-facing seats. This made the Defender 90 4x4 a four-seater vehicle (reduced from six or seven), and the Defender 110 4x4 a seven-seater (reduced from nine). This brought the Defender in line with its competitors which have generally used this layout for many years. A new bodystyle was introduced on the 110 4x4 chassis- the "utility". This was a five-door 4x4 body but with the rearmost seats removed and the rear side panels left without windows, producing a five-seater vehicle with a secure, weatherproof load space.
The only external design alterations were minor detail changes. The bonnet was reshaped with a pressed bulge to allow the new, taller engine to fit in the engine bay whilst meeting pedestrian safety rules. This also avoided the need to re-design the engine sump to clear the axle. The new dashboard and ventilation system necessitated the removal of the distinctive air vent flaps underneath the windscreen which had been a feature of previous Land Rover utility models since the 1950s. While the flaps were deleted, the bulkhead pressing remained the same, so the outlines of where the flaps would be are still present. Passenger and Rear Loading doors were re-engineered to reduce corrosion and galvanic reaction. All other panels retained the same shape and styling that is viewed by enthusiasts as "iconic". 
At the other extreme, basic models are available for commercial users, such as emergency services. The models are sold in over 140 countries. A range of special conversions are available that include hydraulic platforms, fire engines, mobile workshops, ambulances, and breakdown recovery trucks. The 130 remains available with the five-seater HCPU bodystyle as standard.
In August 2011, Land Rover announced an update of the Defender for the 2012 model year. By this time, Land Rover publicly acknowledged that it was working on a project to produce an all-new replacement for the Defender. This would lead to the unveiling of the first DC100 concept vehicle in September that year. While emissions and safety regulations have threatened the Defender since the early 2000s, these had either been avoided or Land Rover had found ways to modify the vehicle to economically meet the new requirements. However, safety regulations due for introduction in 2015 requiring minimum pedestrian safety standards and the fitment of airbags to commercial vehicles cannot be met without a wholesale redesign of the Defender.
The main change for the 2012 models was the installation of a different engine from the Ford Duratorq engine range. Ford decided, due to cost reasons, not to modify the 2.4-litre engine introduced in 2007 to meet the upcoming Euro V emissions standards and so the engine was replaced with the ZSD-422 engine, essentially a 2.2-litre variant of the same engine. Although smaller than the existing unit the power and torque outputs remained unchanged and the same six-speed gearbox was used as well.  The engine included a diesel particulate filter for the first time on a Defender. The only other change was the reintroduction of the soft top body style to the general market. This had been a popular option for the Land Rover Series but by the introduction of the Defender had been relegated to special order and military buyers only. Land Rover stated that the option was being brought back due to customer feedback.  The last Defender, a soft-top "90" rolled off the Solihull production line at 9:22 on Friday 29 January 2016. The BBC reports that the Defender's replacement is due to be launched in 2018/2019. 
Export and foreign-built versions
Land Rover 110 in Australia
Continuing on from production of the Australian SIII Stage 1 Isuzu 4BD1 diesel variant, Jaguar Rover Australia (JRA) developed an Isuzu 4BD1 (See List of Isuzu engines ) diesel powered 110 for sale as an Australia Only consumer product.
In the 1980s, using the Australia Only civilian 4BD1 powered 110 as a basis, JRA developed a military version of the 4BD1 110 model for competitive trials against vehicles supplied by Chrysler JEEP, Mercedes and Toyota conducted by the Australian Army Testing Establishment. Land Rover was the successful candidate and the Australian Army ordered several thousand 110 Land Rovers in various configurations made to this specification, called the Land Rover Perentie , some of which were 6x6 drive. Six wheel drive Perenties were fitted with a turbocharged 3.9L Isuzu diesel engine (4BD1-T), while the 4x4 versions were powered by the naturally aspirated variant (4BD1). The Australian Army vehicles were assembled at the Jaguar Rover Australia (JRA) facility at Moorebank, NSW, from locally made components and other components from the UK and Japan. Between 1981 and 1990, the Isuzu 4BD1 engine was the only diesel option available for Land Rover in Australia. All 110 cab chassis Defenders sold in Australia during this time had a wheelbase of 120 inches in order to accommodate an 8 ft x 6 ft tray. A small number of 6x6 cab chassis Defenders were also made by JRA during this time.
While the Land Rover has been in use in the Australian military from 1959, as a consumer product from the 1970s, it fell out of favour as a 4x4 work vehicle while offerings from Toyota and Nissan increased in popularity. Mid-2009, Land Rover expanded the model range to include 110 and 130 cab-chassis, panel van and HCPU versions, and late in the year announced the re-introduction of the 90 4x4 model for sale from early 2010.
The Defender has proven to be vulnerable to land mines and improvised explosive devices , and the army's new specification calls for optional armour. The Army Perenties are being replaced with unarmoured Mercedes G-Wagens . 
"Land Rover vehicles built for the ADF under the Perentie (1984-92) and Bushranger contracts (1992-98) were specially designed 4x4 and 6x6 vehicles built at either Moorebank (Perentie) or Adelaide (Bushranger) and had different power units and transmission systems to the Solihull-built, Defender-based Land Rover 110 vehicles now commissioned. George Fowler, LRA engineering, who is responsible for the development of this latest production-based Land Rover 110, said the order for the new TD5 Defender was a breakthrough for LRA in the ADF vehicle procurement program."
"The ADF has decided to use a production vehicle which is designed for a ten-year period of service. This decision recognises the increased levels of reliability and durability of a Solihull-production Defender 110, with the new Td5 power unit."
"George Fowler and his team of engineers developed a concept vehicle, based on a production Land Rover 110, that was similar to existing Perentie and Bushranger Land Rover 4x4 vehicles in terms of driver control layout and ancillary equipment." 
Defender in the US
In 1993 Land Rover launched the Defender in the North American (i.e. the United States and Canada) market. Although the Range Rover had been sold there since 1987, this was the first time utility Land Rovers had been sold since 1974. To comply with the strict United States Department of Transportation regulations, ranging from crash safety to lighting, as well as the very different requirements of American buyers, the North American Specification (NAS) Defenders were extensively modified. The initial export batch was 525 Defender 110 County 4x4s: 500 to the United States and 25 to Canada. They were fitted with the 3.9-litre V8 petrol engine, LT-77 five-speed manual transmission and LT230 transfer case. All of the vehicles were "Alpine" white (except one specifically painted black for Ralph Lauren ). They sported full external roll-cages and larger side-indicator and tail-lights. All were equipped with the factory-fitted air conditioning system.
For the 1994 and 1995 model year Land Rover only offered the Defender 90, fitted with a 3.9-litre V8 engine and the R-380 manual transmission which was clearly intended to compete with the Jeep Wrangler . Initially, the Defender 90 was only available as a soft-top with structural roll cage, but later version was offered with a unique, removable, fibre-glass roof panel or regular 4x4 hard-top designated as the station wagon model.
In 1997, the final year of US Defender 90 production, the engine was improved, designated 4.0 and mated to a four-speed automatic transmission. In 1998, regulations changed to require the fitting of airbags for both front seat passengers in all vehicles, as well as side door impact requirements. The Defender could not be fitted with these without major modifications, which given the small numbers of NAS vehicles sold in relation to Land Rover's global sales, were not economically viable. Land Rover retired its North American Specification utility vehicles at the end of 1997 to focus on its more profitable and upmarket Discovery and Range Rover models, as well as the then newly launched Freelander . The next Defender may be sold in the US and Canadian markets in 2019.
Defender licensees and clones
Defenders, derivatives and clones have been built by a number of manufacturers including Santana Motors in Spain (modified Land Rover clones made from 1958 until the licence expired in 1983; Land Rover derivatives were then developed from 1984-1995), Morattab in Iran (using parts and moulds bought from Santana), Otokar in Turkey (beginning in 1987 and continued until the original production ended), and Karmann in Brazil (from 1999-2006, using Land Rover CKD kits). 
Assembly also occurs in Pakistan, Malaysia and South Africa.
Land Rover Defender vehicles have been used by many of the world's military forces, including the US in some limited capacity, following experience with the vehicle during the first Gulf War , where US forces found the British Army 's vehicles to be more capable and better suited to operation in urban areas and for air-lifting than the Humvee . ( See U.S. Army Ranger Special Operations Vehicle .) The British Army has used Land Rovers since the 1950s, as have many countries in the Commonwealth of Nations . The British Army replaced its Series III fleet with One Tens in 1985, with a smaller fleet of Nineties following in 1986. Both used the 2.5-litre naturally aspirated diesel engine. These older vehicles are reaching the end of their service lives, with many being sold onto the civilian market from the late 1990s.
In 1994 Land Rover created the Defender XD (XD= extra duty) to replace and complement these vehicles. Powered by 300Tdi engines, the XD has a much stronger chassis, with fibre webbing around the welded joints in the chassis and around stress points to massively increase load capacity. The XD was available both in Defender 90 and 110 forms and is known to the British Army as the Land Rover Wolf . Usually 110-inch (2,794 mm) soft or hard tops, they are used for patrol, communications and supply duties. 90XDs are less common, but are generally ordered as soft top or hard top vehicles for light liaison and communications. Short-wheelbase vehicles lack the load capacity needed by modern armies, and the increased power of heavy-lift helicopters has made the larger 110s easily air-transportable- a historic advantage of the smaller, lighter 90.
Land Rover offered its "core" military Defenders with the 300Tdi engine rather than the more powerful but more complicated Td5 engine offered in civilian vehicles. The 300 Tdi Defender went into service in the "Green Fleet" from 1998. Before the 300Tdi engine was introduced, military Land Rovers were offered with 2.5-litre petrol and diesel engines, as well as the 3.5-litre V8 petrol. Trials with the Td5 engine proved it to be reliable in battlefield conditions. However, initially it was decided that servicing and repairing its electronic control systems should they fail was too complicated and reliant on having diagnostic computers available. Land Rover were also unable to guarantee they could make the Td5 resistant to the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) generated by a nuclear weapon.
However, following successful trials by the Australian Defence Force of the TD5 Landrover, the British MOD purchased a small fleet of TD5 Landrover Defender 110s for its "Green Fleet" between 2000 and 2002. These were specially converted for the MOD by Landrover Specialist Vehicles. They were plated with UK military registration plates and painted IRR green. Most of these vehicles were deployed in the Falklands as troop carriers and communications vehicles for use by the Royal Marines and UK Special Forces. A small number of TD5 Defender 110s were also ordered for the Royal Navy. These were painted navy blue and deployed to the Falklands. Of these Royal Navy vehicles a few were later re-painted IRR green and reassigned to Royal Marines and SBS use. The more powerful TD5 engine, which was capable of being re-mapped up to around 200 Bhp was ideally suited to the rugged terrain of the Falklands and for towing trailers. The majority of these Falkland vehicles were sold off to Military Motors Ltd by the MOD in 2013. The troop carriers had eight passenger seats in the rear and two rear side windows each side for extra visibility. Visually, these UK military troop carrier TD5 Defenders looked similar to the ones used by the Australian Defence Force except that the UK ones were plain IRR green.
The British police have used Land Rovers (including the Defender) in their service for many years, they are supplied with the entire range from Land Rover itself. Due to the ongoing terrorist threat and proliferation of public order disturbances, the Police Service of Northern Ireland has employed armoured and hardened versions of the Land Rover Defender for over 40 years in various guises. The current PSNI armoured public order vehicle is based upon a heavy duty Defender 110 chassis which starts life as a chassis cab and which is then stripped of the original body and fitted with upgraded suspension, brakes, and drive train. The bonnet, wings and roof are produced from armoured composite materials whilst the body is manufactured from a range of armoured steel and composite materials by OVIK Crossway  OVIK Special Vehicles Division and is known as the PANGOLIN. 
In 2004 a fleet of 12 long wheelbase 110 Td5 Land Rovers were produced for the federal German government, varying between 110 vans, 110 HCPUs and 110 4x4s. The German government did not renew the supply contract after 2006, instead turning to Mercedes for their logistics fleet.
Vehicles produced for the German government order were produced in metallic grey with white roofs. The electrical installation on these vehicles was a special order and kept "luxury" fittings and fixtures to a bare minimum. Four FFR equipped vehicles were produced to facilitate the VHF radios in service at that time with the German government and police authorities. Following the change-over to the Mercedes contract, the federal German government sold their Td5 fleet.
With 300Tdi production stopping in 2006, Land Rover set up production of a military version of the four-cylinder Ford Duratorq engine that is also used as a replacement for the Td5 in civilian vehicles.
The British Army's Land Rovers have been the subject of criticism following recent operations in Iraq and Afghanistan . The majority of British Service Land Rovers carry no armour-plating and the composite armoured SNATCH Land Rover (originally designed to withstand small arms fire and hand-launched projectiles as experienced in Northern Ireland ) is not immune to the larger roadside bomb and rocket attacks. Some have called for British troops to be equipped with Humvees , or other such vehicles. However, similar criticisms have been levelled at the American vehicle. Other proposals include the South African made RG-31 or similar larger and more heavily armoured trucks or armoured vehicles that provide greater protection.
There have been many rumours about a replacement vehicle type. This is most likely the larger, higher-capacity 4x4 or 6x6 Pinzgauer forward-control vehicle similar to the now disused Land Rover 101 forward control , given that the current Land Rover design is also reaching its weight limits due to the increasing amounts of communications and weapons gear used by modern patrol forces. The OVIK Crossway CROSSWAY vehicle has also been mooted as a possible replacement with its 5.4 tonne capacity in 4x4 format and 7.5 tonne capacity in 6x6 format.
In 2012 the German company 4WARD4X4 start develop monitoring shelters and transport flatbeds for military Land Rover Defender 130 single cab. On shelter vehicle and a flatbed vehicle should only work in pair of one unit.
The shelter is used for working section and the flatbed just take the complecate electronic parts and transformers.
In recent years Land Rover has occasionally produced special editions of the Defender. These have usually been little more than a vehicle being fitted with certain option packs and equipment, although more bespoke editions have been produced. Mostly they have been aimed at the more lucrative "lifestyle" market than the Defender's usual commercial and off-road markets.
In 1992 the first special edition Land Rover Defender was produced. Called the 90SV (SV stands for "special vehicles", as all the vehicles were produced by Land Rover's Special Vehicle Operations department), they were painted turquoise and were fitted with a black canvas soft top with standard door tops. Alloy wheels were also fitted, together with rear disc brakes (a first for a Land Rover). Despite the vehicle's sporty looks, it used the standard 200Tdi turbodiesel engine. Only 90 were made for the UK market.
In 1997, the last year that Defender 90’s were made available in the US, Land Rover created 300 Special Edition Station Wagons. Known as the Limited Edition (LE) these Land Rover Defender 90’s were painted with a unique one year color known as Willow Green with a contrasting white accented roof; they were also fitted with body protection in the form of 5 large diamond plated sheets and an external safety cage with a full roof rack. The 1997 Land Rover Defender 90 LE also came with the following options as standard equipment: Air conditioning, rear ladder, rear step, twin tube running boards with diamond plate trim, front A bar and a limited edition placard which was affixed to the rear of the car that denoted its build number out of 300.
For Land Rover's 50th anniversary in 1998 two special editions were built. The first was the Defender 50th which was essentially a NAS (North American spec) Defender 90. It was powered by a 190 hp (140 kW) 4.0-litre V8 petrol engine and was the first Land Rover outside North America to be fitted with an automatic transmission . Air conditioning made them very comfortable vehicles. For the UK and Europe they were painted Atlantis blue, a dark green-blue flip-flop colour, and had a safety devices roll-over protection cage for the front seat occupants. In total 1071 50th anniversary Defenders were built; 385 for the UK home market, the rest for Japan, Europe and the Middle East.
The second 1998 special edition was the "Heritage", intended to hark back to the early days of Land Rover in the 1940s. Available in 90 or 110 variants, the Heritage was only available in the two original colours offered by the company — the dark bronze green and the light pastel Atlantic green. A metal mesh-effect front grille, body-coloured alloy wheels and wing mirrors and silver-painted door and windscreen hinges were all employed to make the Heritage look similar to the original Series I of 1948. Inside, special instruments were used, with black-on-beige displays. The powertrain was the standard Td5 diesel engine and 5 speed manual transmission.
Possibly the best known special edition was the " Tomb Raider " of 2000, built to commemorate Land Rover's role in the first film of that franchise. The Tomb Raider was designed to look like an off-road expedition vehicle. Painted dark metallic grey with special badging and details, the Tomb Raider came equipped with a roof rack and roof rack support system (looking similar to a roll-cage), additional spot lights, winch, bull-bar and raised air-intake. They were available either as a 90 or a 110 double cab, with standard Td5 engines. The Defender actually used in the film (now on display at the Motor Heritage Centre, Gaydon) was a highly modified 110 HCPU with a specially fitted and tuned V8 petrol engine and a non-standard interior.
Following the first Land Rover G4 Challenge in 2003, G4-Edition Defenders became available. As well as the distinctive Tangiers orange colour of the competition vehicles, yellow and black versions were also produced. Defender 90 and 110 4x4 versions were available, with front A-bar, roll-cage, side-steps and front spotlights as standard, as well as G4 badging.
Since then, Land Rover have produced less extravagant special editions. The Defender Black was a 90 or 110 County 4x4 with metallic black paint, leather seats, air con, roll cage and dark-tinted rear windows. One of the most exciting off-road vehicles ever produced, Defender Silver is equipped with stylish and purposeful extras, inside and out, and was available in three distinct versions - TD5, 90 and 110 Station Wagon and 110 Double Cab Pickup. Designed to be tough. Very tough. It was designed to cope with the roughest off-road terrain. That's why every Defender Silver was fitted with an A-frame protection bar which, while undoubtedly enhancing its rugged looks, offered additional protection to the front of the vehicle. Lamp guards were fitted front and rear, and a tow pack incorporating an electrics kit not only to power trailer lights, but also additional equipment. The underside was further shielded from harm by the sump guard and air-con and ABS/TC were available as options. The vehicles came of the production line and were then modified by SVO - Special Vehicle Operations. They are comparatively rare, especially the Double Cab Pick Up with its opinion splitting Fiberglass TruckMan Top..
The 1999 X-Tech was aimed at the commercial market, being a metallic silver 90 hard top fitted with County-style seats, alloy wheels and Alpine window lights. The second model year edition in 2003 was better equipped with wing protector plates and air conditioning.
There have also been various special editions of the Defender created by the company's overseas operations for sale in their specific markets such as the "Sahara" edition and 55th anniversary Defender 90s sold in France - the former being a basic-spec model painted in a sand-like tan colour and supplied with special decals and the latter being a 4x4 fitted with numerous luxury options and special badges in the mould of the factory-built 50th editions. Sometimes individual Land Rover dealers have created limited editions of vehicles to suite their markets. A dealer in Scotland created the "Braemar" edition of 25 vehicles to appeal to local agricultural and forestry buyers, being a 90 hard top supplied ready fitted with a winch, off-road tyres, spotlamps and worklamps, underbody protection and chequer plate.
2008 saw Land Rover's 60th anniversary, for which a new series of special edition Defenders were produced. Branded the "SVX", three models were built. All were painted black with "satin" effect body graphics on the vehicles sides and bonnet carrying the "60th" logo used throughout 2008 at various special events and on anniversary merchandise. Bespoke five-spoke alloy wheels were used and a new silver-coloured front grille design was used. This also incorporated a new design of headlamp with the sidelight lamp being integral with the main headlamp unit, allowing the space previously used for the separate sidelight to be used to fit a pair of high-intensity driving lamps . Inside the SVX models gained Recaro bucket seats in the front row, alloy gearlever knobs and a Garmin GPS navigation system. The drivetrain was the standard 2.4-litre diesel and six-speed manual permanent four-wheel-drive transmission. The SVX edition was available as a 110 (only available outside the UK), a 90 and a brand-new design of 90 soft top - the first time a soft top model had been available through showrooms in the UK since 1992. SVX soft tops had only the two front seats- the rear load bay being used to accommodate the spare wheel and a lockable storage box. A new design of hood was used, sloping down towards the rear over a jointed folding frame, unlike the standard square-framed hood used on other soft top Land Rovers.
Bespoke Paul Smith Defender
To mark the end of production, Land Rover asked British fashion designer Paul Smith to produce a one-off version of the Defender, which was launched in May 2015. The car's exterior featured 27 different colours on the exterior inspired by the Defender’s long life in service with the Army, Navy and Air Force as well as fire, coastguard and mountain rescue roles but also by the colours of the British countryside where Defenders have long since become part of the landscape. 
Replacing the Defender with a new model has been in the planning stages for many years. The Defender did not meet U.S. safety requirements after 1997 and since then Land Rover offered U.S. buyers the more luxurious LR2 (Freelander) and LR4 (Discovery) and Range Rover instead. The need for total replacement has been brought about by 2015's new European regulations regarding crash safety for pedestrians that render the Defender's design obsolete  (see more at Euro NCAP ).
Concept vehicles DC100 and DC100 Sport were revealed at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show with mixed responses from the public. DC100 is a conventional three-door off-roader with a 2.0-litre turbo-charged diesel engine and DC100 Sport is a two-passenger pick-up with 2.0-litre petrol engine.  Unlike the current Defender with 93-inch, 110-inch and 130-inch wheelbases, DC100 was presented in 100-inch wheelbase (DC100 = Defender Concept 100" wheelbase) only.
The new vehicle, which according to Land Rover design director Gerry McGovern will bear little resemblance to the DC100,  is reportedly due to enter production in 2019 and will replace the then 25-year-old model which is the longest running production of any Land Rover vehicle. Land Rover is planning 60,000 to 80,000 units annually which would beat the 1970 record of between 55,000 and 60,000. 
- Jeep Wrangler
- Toyota Land Cruiser
- Mercedes-Benz G-Class
- MDT David
- Ranger Special Operations Vehicle
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