High school career
Considered a four-star recruit by Rivals.com , Lucas was listed as the No. 6 point guard and the No. 38 player in the nation in 2007.
As a freshman, Lucas immediately saw heavy playing time for the 2007–08 Spartans , averaging 25.1 minutes per game.  His team-leading 13.5 points per game in the first two rounds of the NCAA Tournament were a major component of their Sweet Sixteen run. 
During his sophomore season, Lucas earned Big Ten Player of the Year honors, All-Big Ten first team selection, and was named Michigan State's MVP, all while carrying the Spartans to the National Championship game against North Carolina. He led MSU in scoring (14.7 ppg), field goals made (173) and attempted (438), free throws made (172) and attempted (213), assists (4.6 apg) and minutes (31.9 mpg), while ranking second in steals (39). 
Lucas continued to lead the Spartans in his junior season, as he earned All-Big Ten first team honors and was also named Co-MVP of the team, along with Raymar Morgan. On January 26, 2010, Lucas made a mid-range jumper at Michigan with 3.5 seconds remaining, which gave Michigan State a one-point lead, and eventually a 57-56 victory over their in-state rivals. He struggled to stay healthy the rest of the season, spraining his ankle a month before the Big Ten Tournament and eventually rupturing his Achilles tendon in the second round of the 2010 NCAA Tournament against Maryland. Lucas' season was instantly put to an end, but the Spartans rallied, making their way to a second straight Final Four appearance. 
Lucas was voted Team MVP and All-Big Ten second team during his senior season. He finished his four-year career at Michigan State as the school's all-time leader in free-throws made (507) and attempted (637). He is also one of just four Spartans to total 1,500 career points and 500 career assists, finishing his career with 1,996 total points. 
On July 23, 2011, Lucas signed with Olympiacos of the Greek Basket League .   On January 24, 2012, he was released by Olympiacos.   Five days later, he signed with Banvit of Turkey for the rest of the 2011–12 season. 
On September 27, 2013, Lucas signed with the Chicago Bulls , but was later waived on October 2. In November 2013, he was acquired by the Iowa Energy of the NBA Development League as an affiliate player of the Bulls.
On October 31, 2014, Lucas was reacquired by the Iowa Energy . He re-signed with the Grizzlies on November 4, 2014. but was waived again on November 9 before appearing in a game for them.  He re-joined Iowa on November 12,  only to re-sign with the Grizzlies on November 19 and debuting in the NBA the same day, recording one steal in five minutes of action against the Toronto Raptors .   However, he was waived again the next day.  On November 22, he re-joined Iowa.  In March 2015, he left Iowa and signed with TED Ankara Kolejliler of the Turkish Basketball League .  
In July 2015, Lucas signed with Chinese team Qingdao DoubleStar ,  but was let go after a tryout period. He subsequently re-signed with TED Ankara Kolejliler in August 2015.  Lucas was selected to compete in the Turkish League's All-Star Skills Challenge, but had to withdraw due to injury. 
On October 29, 2016, Lucas was reacquired by the Iowa Energy .  In 14 games, he averaged 16.9 points, 5.1 assists, 3.9 rebounds, and 1.1 steals. On December 22, he was traded to the Erie BayHawks in exchange for the rights to Jordan Sibert and a third-round pick.