Jalandhar , formerly known as Jullundur in British India, is a city in the Doaba region of the northwestern Indian state of Punjab. Jalandhar is the oldest inhabited major city in the Indian state of Punjab. In recent times the city has undergone rapid urbanisation and has developed into a highly industrialised centre of commerce.

Jalandhar has been shortlisted for the second phase of the “ Smart City ” initiative of the Indian Government.

Jalandhar used to be the capital of Punjab from India’s independence (in 1947) until Chandigarh was constructed in 1953. Jalandhar is situated alongside the Grand Trunk Road and is a well-connected rail and road junction. Jalandhar is 144 km northwest of Chandigarh, the state capital of Punjab and Haryana.

History

The history of Jalandhar District comprises three periods — ancient, medieval and modern.

The city [5] is named after Jalandhara, a demon king, who is mentioned in the Puranas and Mahabharta. According to another legend, Jalandhar was the capital of the kingdom of Lava (Ramayana), son of Rama. According to another version Jalandhar is said to have derived its name from the vernacular term `Jalandhar' means area inside the water, i.e., tract lying between the two rivers Satluj and Beas. The whole of Punjab and the area of present Jalandhar District was part of the Indus Valley Civilization. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro are the sites where remains of the Indus Valley Civilization have been found extensively. The archaeological explorations made during recent years have pushed the ancient times of Jalandhar District of Harappa period.

The modern history of Jalandhar District states that Khilafat Movement was started in the district in early 1920 to bring pressure upon British rulers to change their policy towards Turkey. Mahatma Gandhi extended sympathy and support to this movement. Jalandhar District was declared 'Proclaimed Area' under the Seditious Meetings Act. After the independence of the country, however, the district was affected by communal riots and exodus of minority communities from both sides of the border, consequent upon the partition of the country.

Climate

The city has a humid subtropical climate with cool winters and long, hot summers. Summers last from April to June and winters from November to February. Temperatures in the summer vary from average highs of around 48 °C (118 °F) to average lows of around 25 °C (77 °F). Winter temperatures have highs of 19 °C (66 °F) to lows of −7 °C (19 °F). The climate is dry on the whole, except during the brief southwest monsoon season during July and August. The average annual rainfall is about 70 cm.

Climate data for Jalandhar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19.4
(66.9)
21.6
(70.9)
26.0
(78.8)
34.5
(94.1)
39.4
(102.9)
40.6
(105.1)
34.1
(93.4)
33.1
(91.6)
32.6
(90.7)
31.5
(88.7)
27.2
(81)
22.3
(72.1)
30.19
(86.35)
Average low °C (°F) 6.2
(43.2)
8.6
(47.5)
13.2
(55.8)
19.0
(66.2)
23.8
(74.8)
25.6
(78.1)
24.7
(76.5)
25.8
(78.4)
21.8
(71.2)
18.3
(64.9)
12.1
(53.8)
7.2
(45)
17.19
(62.95)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 10.7
(0.421)
16.7
(0.657)
32.8
(1.291)
15.2
(0.598)
20.4
(0.803)
69.7
(2.744)
155.2
(6.11)
183.6
(7.228)
60.0
(2.362)
1.5
(0.059)
6
(0.24)
15
(0.59)
586.8
(23.103)
Source: [6]

Demographics

Religion in Jalandhar city [47]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
74.90%
Sikhism
21.39%
Islam
1.47%
Christianity
1.02%
Others
1.22%

As per provisional data of 2011 census Jalandhar had a population of 873,725, of which 463,975 were male and 409,750 female. The literacy rate was 85.46 per cent. [3]

Economy

Jalandhar has been selected in the second phase of the smart city project and 200 crores have been allocated to the municipal corporation for initializing the project.

Jalandhar exports goods like furniture and glass to neighboring cities and is a global hub for the manufacture of sporting equipment. Jalandhar is famous for its sports industry and equipment manufactured in Jalandhar is used by many prominent sporting figures such as Sachin Tendulkar, Sourav Ganguly and Steve Waugh among others.

Transport

By air

The nearest airport is Pathankot Airport at Pathankot, about 90 km and Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport at Amritsar, about 75 km (47 mi) northwest of Jalandhar. It is connected to other parts of the country by regular flights. Several airlines operate flights from abroad, including Birmingham, Dubai, and Doha. The airport handles as many as 48 flights every week up from the occasional, intermittent ones some years ago.Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar informed for opening a domestic airport at Adampur Jalandhar.

By rail

Direct train service is available for other major cities like Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Patna, Guwahati, Pune, Haridwar, Varanasi, Jaipur and Jammu Tawi. Some prestigious trains that halt in Jalandhar City railway station are Howrah Mail, Golden Temple Mail (Frontier Mail), New-Delhi Amritsar Shatabdi Express, Paschim Express. Now many trains of Jammu route are extend up to Mata Vaishno Devi-Katra.

Jalandhar City Railway Station is well-connected to other parts of the country, Jalandhar City is a major stop between the Amritsar-Delhi rail link which is serviced by Shatabdi Express, Intercity Express, and others

Direct Service to major cities such as Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Patna, Guwahati, Pune, Haridwar, Varanasi, Jaipur and Jammu Tawi are available. There are prestigious services such as the Howrah Mail, Golden Temple Mail (Frontier Mail), New-Delhi Amritsar Shatabdi Express, Paschim Express.

By road

There is a large network of bus services of Punjab, Himachal, Delhi, Haryana, Pepsu, Chandigarh, U.P., Jammu & Kashmir, Uttrakhand, Rajasthan State Roadways, apart from private operators.

Commerce

Shopping & Real Estate

Shopping malls in Jalandhar include:

  • Viva Collage Mall
  • MBD Neapolis
  • The Galleria
  • Curo High Street
  • Sarb Multiplex
  • Ram Garments
  • Splendor Shagun
  • PPR Mall
  • Naaz Shopping Center
  • The Metropolitan
  • City Square
  • Vasal Tower
  • Jyoti Mall
  • Chunmun Mall
  • The City Square
  • The Shoppers Square

Religious places

Image
Shaheed-E-Aazam Sardar Bhagat Singh, Interstate Bus Stand, Jalandhar
Image
Viva Collage Mall
  • Ebenezer Assembly of God Church (English/Hindi Services)
  • Gurduwara Thra Sahib (Hazara Village)
  • Baba Khaki Shah (Khurla Kingra)
  • Gurudwara Singh Sabha (Jalandhar Cantt)
  • Mayaan da Gurudwara (Jalandhar Cantt)
  • Gurudwara Kakipind Rama mandi
  • Devi Talab Mandir
  • Imam Nasir Mausoleum and Jamma Masjid
  • Darbar Sajjad Peer Warish Shah Ji (Hardyal Nagar)
  • Darbar Peer Sakhi Sultan
  • Chishti Qadri Darbar Hazrat Ghous Pak Ji Peeran De Peer
  • Darbar Baba Peer Phalai Wala Ji
  • Darbaar Panj Peer Ji (Near Ravidas Chowk)
  • Darbar Sachi Sarkar Lakha Da (Bootan Mandi, Jalandhar-Nakodar Road)
  • Darbar Baba Sunehri Sai Ji (Abadi Jallowal)
  • Guru Ravidass Dham (Bootan Mandi)
  • Masjid Umme Salmaa (Bootan Mandi)
  • Durga Shakti Mandir (Deol Nagar)
  • Shiv Mandir
  • Shiv Bari Mandir
  • Tulsi Mandir
  • Gurdwara Chhevin Pathshahi
  • Gurudwara Singh Sabha-Model Town
  • Gurudwara Talhan Sahib
  • St Mary's Cathedral Church (Jalandhar Cantt)
  • Gurudwara Nauwi Patshahi
  • Church of North India (CNI) Mission Compound
  • Gurudwara Makhdoompura
  • Gurdwara Panj Tirth Sahib (Jandu Singha)
  • Gurudwara Baba Shaheed Nihal Singh Ji Talhan
  • Sankat Mochan Hanuman Mandir (phillar tehsil)
  • Singh Sabha Gurudwara Sahib (chuharwali)
  • shri Guru Ravidass Gurudwara (chuharwali)
  • Gurudwara Asapuran (Tagore nagar)

Leisure

Image
Baba Peer in Jalandhar
  • Pushpa Gujral Science City
  • Fun City
  • Shaheed-E-Azam Sardar Bhagat Museum Khatkar Kalan
  • Company Bagh
  • Niku Park, Model Town
  • Wonder Land [9]
  • Adarsh Nagar Park
  • PVR, MBD Neopolis, BMC Chowk
  • PVR, Curo Highstreet
  • Jyoti Market

Media

Image
Peer Darbar Sakhi Sultan
Image
Interior of Viva Collage Mall, Jalandhar

Doordarshan Kendra, Jalandhar is an Indian television station in Jalandhar, owned and operated by state-owned Doordarshan, the television network of Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India). It was established in 1979 and produces and broadcasts the 24-hour Punjabi language TV channel, DD Punjabi, which was launched in 1998 and covers most of the state of Punjab, India.

The city is the region's headquarters for newspapers, national television and radio stations. These include Daily Ajit, Jagbani, Punjab Kesari, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran, Hindustan Times, The Tribune, Hind Samachar , etc. [11] [3] [3] [3]

State-owned All India Radio has a local station in Jalandhar that transmits programs of mass interest. FM local radio stations include:

Healthcare

There are excellent medical facilities in Jalandhar which include treatment centers and specialist hospitals. The Municipal Corporation of Jalandhar claims that the city has over 423 hospitals, a claim that would make it the city with the highest number of hospitals in South Asia.

Sports

Cricket

Cricket is very popular in grounds and streets of the city. There is an international-standard stadium at Burlton Park. The Indian cricket team played a Test Match against the Pakistan cricket team on this ground on 24 September 1983.

Kabaddi

Major Kabaddi matches are usually held at Guru Gobind Singh Stadium.

Guru Gobind Singh Stadium

Guru Gobind Singh Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Jalandhar. It is usually used mostly for football matches and is the home stadium of JCT Mills Football Club. People can be seen jogging, playing soccer, weight-lifting, etc. in the stadium most of the time. The Punjab government has started new projects at the stadium.

Surjit Hockey Stadium

Surjeet Hockey Stadium is a field hockey stadium in Jalandhar, Punjab, India. It is named after Jalandhar-born Olympian Surjit Singh. This stadium is a home of the franchise Sher-e-Punjab of the World Series Hockey.

Sports college

There is a Government Sports College in the city and it is a focus for many of the National Sports Councils. In this college, many sports are played like cricket, hockey, swimming, volleyball, basketball, etc.

Education

Higher education institutions include

Universities

Image
View Of WonderLand's Water Park in the Evening
Image
Punjab Kesari header with the photos of its founders, Lala Jagat Narain and Romesh Chander.

Jalandhar Cantonment

Notable people

Image
GNA University Campus
Image
The Great Khali is from Shimla district on the way to Chopal. He belongs to the Rana Dynasty of Himachal
Name Occupation
Yash Chopra Producer/Director [3]
Dr. Ranbir Singh Kanwar Sugarcane Researcher, Director of Research (Agriculture) PAU, Director of Research Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University [3]
Vanya Mishra Winner of Miss India Femina 2012
Lawrence Durrell Expatriate British novelist, poet, dramatist, and travel writer [3]
Sunil Dutt Actor [3]
Kundan Lal Saigal Actor/Singer [4]
Amrish Puri Actor [4]
Jazzy B Singer
Sukhwinder Panchhi Singer
Apache Indian Singer
Sarbjit Cheema Singer
Kanth Kaler Singer
Nooran Sisters Singers
Master Saleem Singer
Hans Raj Hans Singer
Jagjit Singh Singer
Bahadur Singh Indian former shot putter who won gold medal
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq 4th Chief Martial Law Administrator and the sixth President of Pakistan
Diwan Bhai Abdul Hamid Revenue and Chief Minister of Kapurthala State
Hafeez Jullundhri Writer and poet
Baba Kashmira Singh Head of Sidhant Sant Samaj or Gurbani
Paul Nischal NRI President, first Indian candidate for the British Political Party
Col. Balbir Singh Kullar Hockey Player
Varinder Singh Ghuman Bodybuilder, Wrestler and Punjabi Film Actor
Ajit Pal Singh Hockey Player
Surjit Singh Hockey Player
Pargat Singh Hockey Player
Inder Kumar Gujral Former Prime Minister of India
Harbhajan Singh Cricketer
Wasim Sajjad Two-time Acting President of Pakistan, Ex-Chairman of Senate
Sheikh Anwarul Haq Former Chief Justice
Mian Mohammed Sharif Surveyor General
Lala Amarnath Cricketer
Lala Jagat Narain Freedom fighter and founder of Punjab Kesri
Rannvijay Singh Indian Actor who acts in Bollywood and Punjabi Films and also a VJ on MTV India
Basheer Hussain Najafi One of the six Grand Ayatollahs
Sardar Swaran Singh Politician
Udham Singh (field hockey) Hockey Player
Darshan Singh (field hockey) Hockey Player
Salma Mumtaz Actress
Ashwini Kumar Chopra Journalist, Politician (MP-Karnal)
Kartar Singh Duggal Writer
Kulwant Singh Virk Writer
Ishar Singh (poet) Poet
Sadhu Singh Hamdard Freedom fighter and Writer
Prem Parkash Writer
Ajit Saini Writer and Army General
Hasrat Writer
Gurbachan Singh Talib Writer
Gurdial Singh Writer and novelist
Chaudhry Muhammad Ali Former Prime Minister of Pakistan
Swami Shraddhanand Indian educationist and an Arya Samaj missionary
Wazir Ali Cricketer
R. Paul Dhillon Indo-Canadian journalist
Arun Shourie Politician, author, and journalist
Amanjot Singh Social Worker
Agha Sadiq Writer and poet
Dharam Singh Uppal Athlete
Balbir Singh, Sr. Hockey Player
Mandeep Singh Cricketer
Vimi Actress
Ranvir Shorey Actor
Sugandha Mishra Singer,Anchor,Comedian
Surbhi Jyoti Actress
General Zia ul Haq x Chief of Army Staff and president of Pakistan
Garry Sandhu Singer
Nalini Priyadarshni Poet, Writer Vijay Sampla State Minister in Union Govt
Bhagat Chunni Lal Minister in Punjab Govt
Ram Kapoor Indian Actor
Sardar Buta Singh Ex- Home Minister of India
Balraj Singh Kehra MTV Roadies X4 Winner
Shammi Jalandhari Punjabi Poet, Writer and Lyricist
Akhil popular Punjabi Singer&Musician
Hakeem Jaan Muhammad Famous physician migrated to Pakistan (okara) district.
Verinder Singh Virdi Micro Writer, also presented Longest Greeting of the world (10.5 km long) to President of India Dr.Shanker Dayal Sharma at Rashtrapati Bhawan in 1995.

See also