The Group of 77 ( G77 ) at the United Nations is a coalition of developing nations , designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations. There were 77 founding members of the organization, but by November 2013 the organization had since expanded to 134 member countries. [281] Since China participates in the G77 but does not consider itself to be a member, all official statements are issued in the name of The Group of 77 and China .

Ecuador holds the Chairmanship for 2017.

The group was founded on 15 June 1964, by the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). [4] The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the Charter of Algiers was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun. There are Chapters of the Group of 77 in Geneva ( UN ), Rome ( FAO ), Vienna ( UNIDO ), Paris ( UNESCO ), Nairobi ( UNEP ) and the Group of 24 in Washington, D.C. ( International Monetary Fund and World Bank ).

Policies

The group has been credited with common stance against apartheid and for supporting global disarmament . It has been supportive of the New International Economic Order . It has been subject to criticism for its lackluster support, or outright opposition, to pro-environmental initiatives, which the group considers secondary to economic development and poverty-eradication initiatives.

Members

As of July 2017, the group comprises all of the UN member states (along with the State of Palestine ), excluding the following countries:

  1. Members of the Council of Europe , except for Bosnia Herzegovina
  2. Members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development , except for Chile
  3. Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area , except for Tajikistan
  4. Two Pacific microstates : Palau and Tuvalu .

Current founding members [9]

  1. Joined as Dahomey.
  2. Joined as Upper Volta.
  3. Joined as the United Arab Republic.
  4. Joined as Burma.
  5. Joined as Ceylon.
  6. Joined as the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.

Other current members

China

The Group of 77 lists China as one of its members. [281] The Chinese government provides consistent political support to the G77 and has made financial contributions to the Group since 1994, but it does not consider itself to be a member. [15] As a result, official statements of the G77 are delivered in the name of The Group of 77 and China . [16]

Former members

  1. New Zealand signed the original "Joint Declaration of the Developing Countries" in October 1963, but pulled out of the group before the formation of the G77 in 1964 (it joined the OECD in 1973).
  2. Mexico was a founding member, but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1994. It had presided over the group in 1973–1974, 1983–1984; however, it is still a member of G-24.
  3. South Korea was a founding member, but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1996.
  4. Yugoslavia was a founding member; by the late 1990s it was still listed on the membership list, but it was noted that it "cannot participate in the activities of G77." It was removed from the list in late 2003. It had presided over the group in 1985–1986. Bosnia and Herzegovina is the only part of former Yugoslavia that is currently in G77.
  5. Cyprus was a founding member, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2004.
  6. Malta was admitted to the Group in 1976, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2004.
  7. Palau joined the Group in 2002, but withdrew in 2004, having decided that it could best pursue its environmental interests through the Alliance of Small Island States .
  8. Romania was admitted to the Group in 1976, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2007.

Presiding countries [17]

Presiding country Year
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Presiding countries of the G77 since 1970. Colors show the number of times a country has held the position. Gray = never, Yellow = once, Orange = twice, Red = thrice
1970–1971 Peru 1971–1972 Egypt 1972–1973 Iran 1973–1974 Mexico 1974–1975 Madagascar 1975–1976 Pakistan 1976–1977 Jamaica 1977–1978 Tunisia 1978–1979 India 1979–1980 Venezuela 1980–1981 Algeria 1981–1982 Bangladesh 1982–1983 Mexico 1983–1984 Egypt 1984–1985 Yugoslavia 1985–1986 Guatemala 1987 Tunisia 1988 Malaysia 1989 Bolivia 1990 Ghana 1991 Pakistan 1992 Colombia 1993 Algeria 1994 Philippines 1995 Costa Rica 1996 Tanzania 1997 Indonesia 1998 Guyana 1999 Nigeria 2000 Iran 2001 Venezuela 2002 Morocco 2003 Qatar 2004 Jamaica 2005 South Africa 2006 Pakistan 2007 Antigua and Barbuda 2008 Sudan 2009 Yemen 2010 Argentina 2011 Algeria 2012 Fiji 2013 Bolivia 2014 South Africa 2015 Thailand 2016 Ecuador 2017

Group of 24

The Group of 24 ( G-24 ) is a chapter of the G-77 that was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. Every member of the G-24, except for Mexico, is also a member of the G77. Although membership in the G-24 is strictly limited to 24 countries, any other member of the G-77 can join discussions.

See also