2012 Summer Olympics
At the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, she competed in the Women's 100 metre backstroke, finishing in 8th place in the final.
2013 World Championships
At the 2013 World Aquatics Championship in Barcelona, Fu placed second in the 50 metre backstroke, losing to her teammate Zhao Jing with a time of 27.39s.
2014 Asian Games
At the 2014 Asian Games in Incheon, Fu won two gold medals in the 50 m and 100 m backstroke.
2015 World Championships
Fu Yuanhui, left on top step, victory ceremony 4 × 100 m medley relay (2015)
She won the 50 metre backstroke at the World Aquatics Championship in 2015 and helped China win the 4x100 metre medley. In the interview, Fu complained her swimsuit was too tight.
2016 Summer Olympics
Fu won a bronze medal in the 100-meter backstroke by tying for third place with Canadian swimmer Kylie Masse. She finished in a national record time of 58.76. Throughout the Olympics, her cheerful interviews and goofy demeanor made her very popular. Mark Dreyer, a Beijing-based sports writer, noted that Fu exemplified "a positive trend in Chinese sports whereby athletics was undergoing a transition away from "manufactured Olympic champions" from the state-run sports system who were effective at bringing home medals but had cardboard personalities and inspired little devotion among fans'. Her series of facial expressions spread widely in the Internet, and her sayings such as "I've already spent my supernatural energy!"（Chinese: 我已使出了洪荒之力！）become very popular catchwords.
2016 Asian Swimming Championships
Since 2016, Fu has been one of the most popular athletes in China. She takes part in some TV talk shows and charity activities. Fu also makes friends with many other swimmers such as Sun Yang and Ye Shiwen.  She was a guest of the 2017 CCTV New Year's Gala.
Personal bests (long course)
- As of July 20, 2017
|50 m backstroke||27.11||2015 World Aquatics Championships||August 6, 2015|
|100 m backstroke||58.72||2017 Chinese National Championships||April 12, 2017||NR|
|200 m backstroke||2.08.84||2015 BHP Super Series||January 30, 2015|