Epic Games, Inc. (formerly Potomac Computer Systems and later Epic MegaGames, Inc.) is an American video game developer based in Cary, North Carolina. The company was founded by Tim Sweeney as Potomac Computer Systems in 1991, originally located in his parents' house in Potomac, Maryland. Following his first commercial video game release, ZZT (1991), the company became Epic MegaGames in early 1992, and brought on Mark Rein, who is the company's vice president to date. Moving their headquarters to Cary in 1999, the studio's name was simplified to Epic Games.
Epic Games develops the Unreal Engine, a commercially available game engine which also powers their internally developed video games, such as Fortnite and the Unreal, Gears of War and Infinity Blade series. In 2014, Unreal Engine was named the "most successful videogame engine" by Guinness World Records. 
Epic Games owns video game developer Chair Entertainment and cloud-based software developer Cloudgine, and operates eponymous sub-studios in Seattle, England, Berlin, Yokohama and Seoul. Key personnel at Epic Games include chief executive officer Tim Sweeney, lead programmer Steve Polge and art director Chris Perna.    Tencent acquired a 40% stake in the company in 2012, after Epic Games realized that the video game industry was heavily developing towards the games as a service model.
Potomac Computer Systems (1991–1992)
Potomac Computer Systems was founded by Tim Sweeney in 1991.  At the time, Sweeney was studying mechanical engineering at the University of Maryland. Though he lived in a dorm located in Potomac, Maryland, he frequently visited his parents, who lived in the same town, where his personal computer, used for both work and leisure, was situated.  Out of this location, Sweeney started Potomac Computer Systems as a computer consulting business, but later figured that it would be too much work he would have to put into keeping the business stable, and scrapped the idea. 
After finishing his game ZZT in October 1991, Sweeney opted to re-use the Potomac Computer Systems name to release the game to the public.  It was only with the unexpected success of ZZT, caused in most part by the easy modifiability of the game using Sweeney's custom ZZT-oop programming language,  that made Sweeney consider turning Potomac Computer Systems into a video game company.  ZZT was sold through bulletin board systems, while all orders were fulfilled by Sweeney's father, Paul Sweeney.  The game sold several thousand copies as of May 2009, and Paul Sweeney still lived at the former Potomac Computer Systems address at the time, fulfilling all orders that eventually came by mail.   The final copy of ZZT was shipped by Paul Sweeney in November 2013. 
Epic MegaGames (1992–1999)
In early 1992, Sweeney found himself and his new-found video game company in a business where larger studios, such as Apogee Software and id Software, were dominant, and he had to find a more serious name for his.  As such, Sweeney came up with "Epic MegaGames", a name which incorporated "Epic" and "Mega" to make it sound like it represented a fairly large company (such as Apogee Software), although he was its only employee.  Sweeney soon underwent searching for a business partner, and eventually caught up with Mark Rein, who previously quit his job at id Software and moved to Toronto, Ontario.   Rein worked remotely from Toronto, and primarily handled sales, marketing and publishing deals; business development that Sweeney found to have significantly contributed to the company's growth.  Some time this season, the company soon had 20 employees consisting of programmers, artists, designers and composers.  Among them was the 17-year old Cliff Bleszinski, who joined the company after submitting his game Dare to Dream to Sweeney.  The following year, they had over 30 employees.
In 1996, Epic MegaGames produced a shareware isometric shooter called Fire Fight, developed by Polish studio Chaos Works. It was published by Electronic Arts.  A year later, Safari Software was acquired in whole by Epic MegaGames and some of their titles as well as other pre-1998 games were sold under the Epic Classics brand until late 2012. By 1997, Epic MegaGames had 50 people working for them worldwide.  In 1998, Epic MegaGames released Unreal, a 3D first-person shooter co-developed with Digital Extremes, which expanded into a series of Unreal games. The company also began to license the core technology, the Unreal Engine, to other game developers.
Epic Games (1999–present)
Unrealand personal computer gaming (1999–2006)
In February 1999, Epic MegaGames announced that they had moved their headquarters to a new location in Cary, North Carolina, and would henceforth be known as simply Epic Games.  Rein explained that " Unreal was first created by developers who were scattered across the world, eventually, the team came together to finish the game and that's when the real magic started. The move to North Carolina centralizes Epic, bringing all of the company's talented developers under one roof."  Furthermore, Sweeney stated that the "Mega" part of the name was dropped because they no longer wanted to pretend to be a big company, as was the original intention of the name when it was a one-man team.  The follow-up game, Unreal Tournament, shipped to critical acclaim the same year,  at which point the studio had 13 employees. 
The company launched the Make Something Unreal competition in 2004, aiming to reward video game developers who create mods using the Unreal game engine. Tripwire Interactive won US$80,000 in cash and computer hardware prizes over the course of the contest in the first contest in 2004.  
Gears of Warand console gaming (2006–2012)
Around 2006, the personal computer video game market was struggling with copyright infringement in the form of software piracy, and it became difficult to make single-player games, elements which had been part of Epic's business model to that point. The company decided to shift focus into developing on console systems, a move which Rein called the start of the third major iteration of the company, "Epic 3.0".  In 2006, Epic released the Xbox 360 shooter Gears of War, which became a commercial success for the company, grossing about US$100 million off a US$12 million budget.   A year later, the company released Unreal Tournament 3 for PC and acquired a majority share in People Can Fly.  
In 2008, Epic Games acquired Utah based Chair Entertainment and released Gears of War 2,   selling over three million copies within the first month of its release.  Summer 2009 saw the launch of Chair Entertainment's Shadow Complex, an adventure game inspired by the Metroid series. 
Epic Games released on September 1, 2010 Epic Citadel as a tech demo to demonstrate the Unreal Engine 3 running on Apple iOS, within Adobe Flash Player Stage3D and using HTML5 WebGL technologies. It was also released for Android on January 29, 2013. Epic Games worked on an iOS game, Infinity Blade,  which was released on December 9, 2010.  The third game in the series, Gears of War 3, came out in 2011. 
In June 2012, Epic announced that it is opening up a new studio, Epic Baltimore, made up of members of 38 Studios' Big Huge Games.  Epic Baltimore was renamed to Impossible Studios in August 2012.  However, the studio ended up closing its doors in February 2013.  
Epic alongside People Can Fly made one last game in the Gears of War series that served as a prequel to the other games, Gears of War: Judgement, which was released in 2013. At this point, Epic had considered developing a fourth main title for Gears of War, but estimated that its budget would be at least US$100 million.  Additionally, they had suggested the idea of a multiplayer-only version of Gears of War that featured improved versions of maps based on user feedback, similar to the concept behind Unreal Tournament, but Microsoft rejected this idea. Epic recognized the troubles of being held to the business objectives of a publisher, and began to shift the company again. 
Games as a Service and Tencent acquisition (2012–present)
Coupled with their desire to move away from being beholden to a publisher, Epic Games observed that the video game industry was shifting to a games as a service model (GaaS). Sweeney stated "There was an increasing realization that the old model wasn't working anymore and that the new model was looking increasingly like the way to go."  In an attempt to gain more GaaS experience, they made an agreement with Chinese Tencent, who had several games under their banner (including Riot Games' League of Legends) operating successfully as games as a service.  In exchange for Tencent's help, Tencent acquired approximately 48.4% of Epic then issued share capital, equating to 40% of total Epic — inclusive of both stock and employee stock options, for $330 million in June 2012. Tencent Holdings has the right to nominate directors to the board of Epic Games and thus counts as an associate of the Group.  However, Sweeney stated that Tencent otherwise has very little control on the creative output of Epic Games.  Mark Rein considered the partial acquisition by Tencent as the start of "Epic 4.0", the fourth major iteration of the company, allowing the company to be more agile in the gaming marketplace.  
Around this point, Epic had about 200 employees.  A number of high-profile staff left the company months after the Tencent deal was announced for various reasons. Some notable departures included: 
- Cliff Bleszinski, then the design director, announced he was leaving Epic Games in October 2012 after 20 years with the company. His official reason was "It's time for a much needed break".  Bleszinski later stated that he had become "jaded" about the gaming industry in the lead-up to Tencent's involvement. After Tencent's investment, Bleszinski attempted to renegotiate his contract, but failed to come to terms, making him think about retirement instead. He opted to stop coming into work, spending his time at his beach house, eventually leading Sweeney to come down and have a heart-to-heart discussion with Bleszinski on the new direction Epic was going, and asking him to make a firm decision regarding his commitment to Epic. Bleszinski opted to write his resignation letter the next day.  After about two years, Bleszinski later started Boss Key Productions in 2014.
- President Mike Capps announced his retirement in December 2013, and cited the reasons as the arrival of a baby boy he was having with his wife and his plans to be a stay-at-home dad.  He subsequently announced his departure of his advisory role as well as his affiliation with the company in March 2013. 
- Rod Fergusson, who had been a lead developer for the Gears of War series, left Epic in August 2012. Fergusson stated that he had seen the direction that the Tencent acquisition would have taken the company, and was not interested in the free-to-play style of games but instead wanted to continue developing a "AAA, big-narrative, big-story, big-impact game".  Fergusson briefly joined Irrational Games, owned by 2K Games, to help complete BioShock Infinite. While there, Fergusson talked with 2K about potentially continuing the Gears of War series, leading to talks between 2K Games, Epic, and Microsoft.  As a result, Microsoft acquired the rights to Gears of War on January 27, 2014, eventually assigned those to Microsoft Game Studios; Fergusson moved to Black Tusk Studios, owned by Microsoft Game Studios, to take on lead development for a new Gears title, with the studio being rebranded as The Coalition. The first game since the acquisition, Gears of War 4, was released in October 2016.  
- Adrian Chmielarz, the founder of People Can Fly and who joined Epic when his studio was acquired earlier in 2012, decided to leave after Tencent's acquisition, stating that he and other former People Can Fly members did not believe the free-to-play, games as a service direction fit their own personal vision or direction they wanted to go. Chmielarz and these others left Epic in late 2012 to form The Astronauts. 
- Lee Perry, a lead designer on both Unreal and Gears of War series, who felt that Epic has started to grow too large to maintain a role as an eccentric game developer. Coupled with the studio's need for more management to support the games as a service model, Perry felt that their creative freedom would become limited. He and five other senior people left Epic to form a new studio, Bitmonster. 
Epic continued on its goal to deliver games as a service following these departures. Fortnite was to serve as their testbed for living games, but with the shifts in staff, as well as shifting its engine from Unreal Engine 3 to 4, its release suffered some setback. Epic started additional projects; the free-to-play and community-developed Unreal Tournament, first announced in 2014,   and the free-to-play multiplayer online battle arena game Paragon, launched in 2016 for Microsoft Windows and PlayStation 4.  Epic also released a remastered version of Shadow Complex for newer consoles and computers in 2015,   and their first foray into virtual reality with the release of Robo Recall for the Oculus Rift.  
The investment infusion from Tencent allowed Epic Games to relicense the Unreal Engine 4 engine in March 2015 to be free for all users to develop with, with Epic taking 5% royalties on games developed with the engine. 
In June 2015, Epic agreed to allow Epic Games Poland depart the company and sold its shares in the studio; the studio reverted to their former name, People Can Fly. The Bulletstorm IP was retained by People Can Fly who has since launched a remastered version called Bulletstorm: Full Clip Edition on April 7, 2017, published by Gearbox Software.  
By July 2017, Fortnite was finally in a state for public play. Epic launched the title through a paid early access then, with a full free-to-play release expected in 2018.  Following on the popularity of PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds, a battle royale game released earlier in 2017, Epic developed a variant of Fortnite called Fortnite Battle Royale, which was released in September 2017 as a free-to-play title across computer, console, and mobile platforms. Fortnite Battle Royale quickly gained an audience, amassing over 125 million players by May 2018 with estimates of having earned over US$1 billion by July 2018 through microtransactions. Epic Games, which had been valued at around US$825 million at the time of Tencent's acquisition, was estimated to be worth US$4.5 billion in July 2018 due to Fortnite Battle Royale, and expected to surpass US$8.5 billion by the end of 2018 with projected growth of the game.  Due to the success of Fortnite, Epic announced it would be ending support for Paragon, its other free-to-play title, to focus on supporting Fortnite. 
Epic Games was one of eleven companies selected to be part of the Disney Accelerator program in 2017, providing Epic equity investment and access to some of Disney's executives, and potential opportunity to work with Disney in the future. Disney had selected both Epic and aXiomatic as potential leads in the growing esports arena. 
In January 2018, it was announced that Epic had acquired Cloudgine, a developer of cloud-based gaming software.  The company also announced the acquisition of Kamu, a firm that offered anti-cheat software, in October 2018. 
Epic announced in October 2018 that it had acquired US$1.25 billion in investment from seven firms: KKR, ICONIQ Capital, Smash Ventures, aXiomatic, Vulcan Capital, Kleiner Perkins, and Lightspeed Venture Partners. The firms join Tencent, Disney, and Endevour as minority shareholders in Epic, which is still controlled by Sweeney.   With the investment, Epic Games was estimated to have a nearly US$15 billion valuation. 
Epic announced its own Epic Games Store, an open digital storefront for games, on December 4, 2018. In contrast to Valve's Steam storefront, which takes a 30% cut of revenues from sale of a game, the Epic Game Store will only take 12%, as well as foregoing the normal 5% cut for games developed in the Unreal Engine, anticipating that the lower cut will draw developers to it.  
Epic Games is known for games such as ZZT developed by founder Tim Sweeney, various shareware titles including Jazz Jackrabbit and Epic Pinball, the Unreal video game series, which is used as a showcase for its Unreal Engine, the Gears of War series which is now owned by The Coalition and Microsoft Game Studios, Infinity Blade, Shadow Complex, Bulletstorm, and Fortnite.
Epic is the proprietor of four successful game engines in the video game industry. Each Unreal Engine has a complete feature set of graphical rendering, sound processing, and physics that can be widely adapted to fit the specific needs of a game developer that does not want to code its own engine from scratch. The four engines Epic has created are the Unreal Engine 1, Unreal Engine 2 (including its 2.5 and 2.X releases), Unreal Engine 3, and Unreal Engine 4. Epic also provides support to the Unreal marketplace, a digital storefront for creators to sell Unreal assets to other developers.
Subsidiaries and divisions
- Chair Entertainment in Salt Lake City, Utah; established in 2005, acquired in 2008.  
- Cloudgine in Edinburgh, Scotland; established in 2012, acquired in 2018. 
- Epic Games Germany GmbH (doing business as Epic Games Berlin) in Berlin, Germany; established in 2016.  
- Epic Games Korea in Seoul, South Korea; established in 2009.  
- Epic Games Japan in Yokohama, Japan; established in 2010.   
- Epic Games Seattle in Seattle, Washington, U.S.; opened in 2012.  
- Epic Games Stockholm in Stockholm, Sweden; opened in 2018. 
- Epic Games UK in Guildford, Sunderland and Leamington Spa, England; formed in 2014 upon the acquisition of Pitbull Studio, which was founded in 2010.  
- Kamu in Helsinki, Finland; established in 2013, acquired in 2018.  
- Epic Games New Zealand/Australia (location TBD); formed in 2018 as a new studio to be led by Anthony Reed, formerly the CEO of the Game Developers' Association of Australia. 
Epic had acquired Polish studio People Can Fly in 2012, rebranding them to Epic Games Poland. In 2015, the studio regained its independence from Epic, reverting to the People Can Fly name as well as retaining the IP rights to Bulletstorm. 
Litigation with Silicon Knights
On July 19, 2007, Canadian game studio Silicon Knights sued Epic Games for failure to "provide a working game engine", causing the Ontario-based game developer to "experience considerable losses".  The suit alleged that Epic Games was "sabotaging" Unreal Engine 3 licensees. Epic's licensing document stated that a working version of the engine would be available within six months of the Xbox 360 developer kits being released. Silicon Knights claimed that Epic not only missed this deadline, but that when a working version of the engine was eventually released, the documentation was insufficient. The game studio also claimed Epic had withheld vital improvements to the game engine, claiming they were "game specific", while also using licensing fees to fund development of its own titles rather than the engine itself. 
In August 2007, Epic Games counter-sued Silicon Knights, alleging the studio was aware when it signed on that certain features of Unreal Engine 3 were still in development and that components would continue to be developed and added as Epic completed work on Gears of War. Therefore, in a statement, Epic said that "SK knew when it committed to the licensing agreement that Unreal Engine 3 may not meet its requirements and may not be modified to meet them".  Additionally, the counter-suit claimed that Silicon Knights had "made unauthorized use of Epic's Licensed Technology" and had "infringed and otherwise violated Epic's intellectual property rights, including Epic's copyrighted works, trade secrets, know how and confidential information" by incorporating Unreal Engine 3 code into its own engine, the Silicon Knights Engine.  Furthermore, Epic asserted the Canadian developer broke the contract when it employed this derivative work in an internal title and a second game with Sega,  a partnership for which it never received a license fee. 
On May 30, 2012, Epic Games defeated Silicon Knights' lawsuit, and won its counter-suit for $4.45 million on grounds of copyright infringement, misappropriation of trade secrets, and breach of contract,  an injury award that was later doubled due to prejudgment interest, attorneys' fees and costs.  Consistent with Epic's counterclaims, the presiding judge, James C. Dever III, stated that Silicon Knights had "deliberately and repeatedly copied thousands of lines of Epic Games' copyrighted code, and then attempted to conceal its wrongdoing by removing Epic Games' copyright notices and by disguising Epic Games' copyrighted code as Silicon Knights' own".  Dever stated that evidence against Silicon Knights was "overwhelming", as it not only copied functional code but also "non-functional, internal comments Epic Games' programmers had left for themselves". 
As a result, on November 7, 2012, Silicon Knights was directed by the court to destroy all game code derived from Unreal Engine 3, all information from licensee-restricted areas of Epic's Unreal Engine documentation website, and to permit Epic Games access to the company's servers and other devices to ensure these items have been removed. In addition, the studio was instructed to recall and destroy all unsold retail copies of games built with Unreal Engine 3 code, including Too Human, X-Men Destiny, The Sandman, The Box / Ritualyst, and Siren in the Maelstrom (the latter three titles were projects never released, or even officially announced). 
On May 16, 2014, Silicon Knights filed for bankruptcy and a Certificate of Appointment was issued by the office of the Superintendent of Bankruptcy, with Collins Barrow Toronto Limited being appointed as trustee in bankruptcy. 
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