The 100 metres , or 100-metre dash , is a sprint race in track and field competitions. The shortest common outdoor running distance, it is one of the most popular and prestigious events in the sport of athletics. It has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1928 for women.

File:Women's 100M Final - 28th Summer Universiade 2015 Gwangju.webm
Women's 100M Final - 28th Summer Universiade 2015

The reigning 100 m Olympic champion is often named "the fastest man in the world". The World Championships 100 metres has been contested since 1983. American Justin Gatlin and Tori Bowie are the reigning world champions; Usain Bolt and Elaine Thompson are the Olympic champions in the men's and women's 100 metres, respectively.

On an outdoor 400 metres running track, the 100 m is run on the home straight, with the start usually being set on an extension to make it a straight-line race. Runners begin in the starting blocks and the race begins when an official fires the starter's pistol. Sprinters typically reach top speed after somewhere between 50–60 m. Their speed then slows towards the finish line.

The 10-second barrier has historically been a barometer of fast men's performances, while the best female sprinters take eleven seconds or less to complete the race. The current men's world record is 9.58 seconds, set by Jamaica's Usain Bolt in 2009, while the women's world record of 10.49 seconds set by American Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988 remains unbroken.

The 100 m (109.361 yards) emerged from the metrication of the 100 yards (91.44 m), a now defunct distance originally contested in English-speaking countries. The event is largely held outdoors as few indoor facilities have a 100 m straight.

US athletes have won the men's Olympic 100 metres title more times than any other country, 16 out of the 28 times that it has been run. US women have also dominated the event winning 9 out of 21 times.

Race dynamics

Start

At the start, some athletes play psychological games such as trying to be last to the starting blocks. [4]

At high level meets, the time between the gun and first kick against the starting block is measured electronically, via sensors built in the gun and the blocks. A reaction time less than 0.1 s is considered a false start. The 0.2-second interval accounts for the sum of the time it takes for the sound of the starter's pistol to reach the runners' ears, and the time they take to react to it.

For many years a sprinter was disqualified if responsible for two false starts individually. However, this rule allowed some major races to be restarted so many times that the sprinters started to lose focus. The next iteration of the rule, introduced in February 2003, meant that one false start was allowed among the field, but anyone responsible for a subsequent false start was disqualified.

This rule led to some sprinters deliberately false-starting to gain a psychological advantage: an individual with a slower reaction time might false-start, forcing the faster starters to wait and be sure of hearing the gun for the subsequent start, thereby losing some of their advantage. To avoid such abuse and to improve spectator enjoyment, the IAAF implemented a further change in the 2010 season – a false starting athlete now receives immediate disqualification. [5] This proposal was met with objections when first raised in 2005, on the grounds that it would not leave any room for innocent mistakes. Justin Gatlin commented, "Just a flinch or a leg cramp could cost you a year's worth of work." [6] The rule had a dramatic impact at the 2011 World Championships, when current world record holder Usain Bolt was disqualified. [8]

Mid-race

Runners normally reach their top speed just past the halfway point of the race and they progressively decelerate in the later stages of the race. Maintaining that top speed for as long as possible is a primary focus of training for the 100 m. [9] Pacing and running tactics do not play a significant role in the 100 m, as success in the event depends more on pure athletic qualities and technique.

Finish

The winner, by IAAF Competition Rules, is determined by the first athlete with his or her torso (not including limbs, head, or neck) over the nearer edge of the finish line. [65] When the placing of the athletes is not obvious, a photo finish is used to distinguish which runner was first to cross the line.

Climatic conditions

Climatic conditions, in particular air resistance, can affect performances in the 100 m. A strong head wind is very detrimental to performance, while a tail wind can improve performances significantly. For this reason, a maximum tail wind of 2.0 m/s is allowed for a 100 m performance to be considered eligible for records, or "wind legal".

Furthermore, sprint athletes perform a better run at high altitudes because of the thinner air, which provides less air resistance. In theory, the thinner air would also make breathing slightly more difficult (due to the partial pressure of oxygen being lower), but this difference is negligible for sprint distances where all the oxygen needed for the short dash is already in the muscles and bloodstream when the race starts. While there are no limitations on altitude, performances made at altitudes greater than 1000 m above sea level are marked with an "A". [12]

10-second barrier

Sex and ethnicity

Only male sprinters have beaten the 100 m 10-second barrier, nearly all of them being of West African descent. Namibian (formerly South-West Africa) Frankie Fredericks became the first man of non-West African heritage to achieve the feat in 1991 and in 2003 Australia's Patrick Johnson (an Indigenous Australian with Irish heritage) became the first sub-10-second runner without an African background.

In 2010, French sprinter Christophe Lemaitre became the first Caucasian to break the 10-second barrier, in 2017, Azerbaijani -born naturalized Turkish Ramil Guliyev followed. In the Prefontaine Classic 2015 Diamond League meet at Eugene, Su Bingtian ran a time of 9.99 seconds, becoming the first Asian athlete to officially break the 10-second barrier. On 9 September 2017, Yoshihide Kiryū became the first man from Japan to break the 10-second barrier in the 100 meters, running a 9.98 (+1.8) at an intercollegiate meet in Fukui. In the 2015 Birmingham Grand Prix Diamond League meet, British athlete Adam Gemili, who is of mixed Iranian and Moroccan descent, ran a time of 9.97 seconds on home soil, becoming the first athlete with either North African or Middle Eastern heritage to break the ten-second barrier.

Colin Jackson, an athlete with mixed ethnic background and former world record holder in the 110 metre hurdles, noted that both his parents were talented athletes and suggested that biological inheritance was the greatest influence, rather than any perceived racial factor. Furthermore, successful black role models in track events may reinforce the racial disparity.

Record performances

Major 100 m races, such as at the Olympic Games, attract much attention, particularly when the world record is thought to be within reach.

The men's world record has been improved upon twelve times since electronic timing became mandatory in 1977. The current men's world record of 9.58 s is held by Usain Bolt of Jamaica, set at the 2009 World Athletics Championships final in Berlin, Germany on 16 August 2009, breaking his own previous world record by 0.11 s. The current women's world record of 10.49 s was set by Florence Griffith-Joyner of the US, at the 1988 United States Olympic Trials in Indianapolis, Indiana, on 16 July 1988 breaking Evelyn Ashford's four-year-old world record by .27 seconds. The extraordinary nature of this result and those of several other sprinters in this race raised the possibility of a technical malfunction with the wind gauge which read at 0.0 m/s- a reading which was at complete odds to the windy conditions on the day with high wind speeds being recorded in all other sprints before and after this race as well as the parallel long jump runway at the time of the Griffith-Joyner performance. All scientific studies commissioned by the IAAF and independent organizations since have confirmed there was certainly an illegal tailwind of between 5 m/s - 7 m/s at the time. This should have annulled the legality of this result, although the IAAF has chosen not to take this course of action. The legitimate next best wind legal performance would therefore be Griffith-Joyner's 10.61s performance in the final the next day.

Some records have been marred by prohibited drug use – in particular, the scandal at the 1988 Summer Olympics when the winner, Canadian Ben Johnson was stripped of his medal and world record.

Jim Hines, Ronnie Ray Smith and Charles Greene were the first to break the 10-second barrier in the 100 m, all on 20 June 1968, the Night of Speed. Hines also recorded the first legal electronically timed sub-10 second 100 m in winning the 100 metres at the 1968 Olympics. Bob Hayes ran a wind-assisted 9.91 seconds at the 1964 Olympics.

Continental records

Updated 5 July 2015.

Area Men Women
Time (s) Wind Athlete Nation Time (s) Wind Athlete Nation
Africa ( records ) 9.85 +1.7 Olusoji Fasuba Nigeria 10.78 +1.6 Murielle Ahoure Ivory Coast
Asia ( records ) 9.91 +1.8 Femi Ogunode Qatar 10.79 0.0 Li Xuemei People's Republic of China
9.91 +0.6 Femi Ogunode Qatar
Europe ( records ) 9.86 +0.6 Francis Obikwelu Portugal 10.73 +2.0 Christine Arron France
9.86 +1.3 Jimmy Vicaut France
9.86 +1.8 Jimmy Vicaut France
North, Central Americaand Caribbean ( records ) 9.58 WR +0.9 Usain Bolt Jamaica 10.49 WR 0.0 Florence Griffith-Joyner United States
Oceania ( records ) 9.93 +1.8 Patrick Johnson Australia 11.11 +1.9 Melissa Breen Australia
South America ( records ) 10.00 +1.6 Robson da Silva Brazil 11.01 +1.4 Ana Cláudia Lemos Brazil

Notes

All-time top 25 men

  • Correct as of June 2017.
Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Place Ref
1 9.58 +0.9 Usain Bolt
Image
Usain Bolt breaking the world and Olympic records at the 2008 Beijing Olympics
16 August 2009 Berlin 2 9.69 +2.0 Tyson Gay United States20 September 2009 Shanghai −0.1 Yohan Blake Jamaica23 August 2012 Lausanne 4 9.72 +0.2 Asafa Powell Jamaica2 September 2008 Lausanne 5 9.74 +0.9 Justin Gatlin United States15 May 2015 Doha 6 9.78 +0.9 Nesta Carter Jamaica29 August 2010 Rieti 7 9.79 +0.1 Maurice Greene United States16 June 1999 Athens 8 9.80 +1.3 Steve Mullings Jamaica4 June 2011 Eugene 9 9.82 +1.7 Richard Thompson Trinidad and Tobago21 June 2014 Port of Spain +1.3 Christian Coleman United States7 June 2017 Eugene 11 9.84 +0.7 Donovan Bailey Canada27 July 1996 Atlanta +0.2 Bruny Surin Canada22 August 1999 Seville +1.3 Trayvon Bromell United States25 June 2015 Eugene +1.63 July 2016 [66] 14 9.85 +1.2 Leroy Burrell United States6 July 1994 Lausanne +1.7 Olusoji Fasuba Nigeria12 May 2006 Doha +1.3 Mike Rodgers United States4 June 2011 Eugene 17 9.86 +1.2 Carl Lewis United States25 August 1991 Tokyo −0.7 Frankie Fredericks Namibia3 July 1996 Lausanne +1.8 Ato Boldon Trinidad and Tobago19 April 1998 Walnut +0.6 Francis Obikwelu Portugal22 August 2004 Athens +1.4 Keston Bledman Trinidad and Tobago23 June 2012 Port of Spain +1.3 Jimmy Vicaut France4 July 2015 Saint-Denis 23 9.87 +0.3 Linford Christie United Kingdom15 August 1993 Stuttgart −0.2 Obadele Thompson Barbados11 September 1998 Johannesburg 25 9.88 +1.8 Shawn Crawford United States19 June 2004 Eugene +1.0 Walter Dix United States8 August 2010 Nottwil +0.9 Ryan Bailey United States29 August 2010 Rieti +1.0 Michael Frater Jamaica30 June 2011 Lausanne 9.88 A +0.2 Sydney Siame Zambia8 April 2017Lusaka

More facts about these male runners

  • Usain Bolt also holds the record for the fastest 100 metres with a running start at 8.70 (41 km/h). This was achieved during a 150 metres race in Manchester 2009, completed in 14.35 (also a World Record). He also ran times of 9.63 (2012), 9.69, 9.72 (2008), 9.76 (2008, 2011, 2012), 9.77 (2008, 2013), 9.79 (2009, 2012, 2015), 9.80 (2013), 9.81 (2009, 2016), 9.82 (2010, 2012), 9.83 (2008), 9.84 (2010), 9.85 (2008, 2011, 2013), 9.86 (2009, 2010, 2012, 2016), 9.87 (2012, 2015) and 9.88 (2011, 2016)
  • Justin Gatlin ran 9.77 in Doha on 12 May 2006, which was at the time ratified as a world record. However, the record was rescinded in 2007 after he failed a doping test in April 2006. He also ran times of 9.74 (2015), 9.75 (2015), 9.77 (2014), 9.78 (2015), 9.79 (2012), 9.80 (2014, 2015, 2016), 9.82 (2014), 9.83 (2014, 2015), 9.85 (2004, 2013), 9.86 (2014), 9.88 (2005)
  • Tim Montgomery's time of 9.78 at Paris on 14 September 2002 was rescinded following his indictment in the BALCO scandal on drug use and drug trafficking charges. The time had stood as the world record until Asafa Powell first ran 9.77.
  • Ben Johnson ran 9.79 at Seoul on 24 September 1988, but he was disqualified after he tested positive for stanozolol after the race. He subsequently admitted to drug use between 1981 and 1988, and his time of 9.83 at Rome on 30 August 1987 was rescinded. Carl Lewis's 9.92 in the Seoul race was therefore recognised as the world record, and his two prior runs of 9.93 were seen as having equalled the previous world record.
  • Ato Boldon ran four 9.86 races (two in 1998, two in 1999).
  • Dwain Chambers time of 9.87 (+2.0) on 14 September 2002 in Paris was later annulled due to doping offence.
  • Steve Mullings is serving a lifetime ban for doping.
  • Jimmy Vicaut also ran 9.86 and 9.88 in June 2016.

Assisted marks

Any performance with a following wind of more than 2.0 metres per second is not counted for record purposes. Below is a list of the fastest wind-assisted times (9.80 or better). Only times that are superior to legal bests are shown.

  • Justin Gatlin ran 9.45 (+20 m/s) in 2011 on the Japanese TV show Kasupe! assisted by wind machines blowing at speeds over 25 meters per second.
  • Tyson Gay (USA) ran 9.68 (+4.1 m/s) on 29 June 2008 during the U.S. Olympic Trials at Hayward Field in Eugene, Oregon
  • Andre De Grasse (CAN) ran 9.69 (+4.8 m/s) on 18 June 2017 during Diamond League in Stockholm [4] and 9.75 (+2.7 m/s) on 12 June 2015 at the NCAA Championships in Eugene, Oregon.
  • Obadele Thompson (BAR) ran 9.69 (+5.7 m/s) in El Paso, Texas in April 1996, which stood as the fastest ever 100 metres time for 12 years.
  • Richard Thompson (TTO) ran a wind-assisted 9.74 (exact wind unknown) in Clermont on 31 May 2014.
  • Darvis Patton (USA) ran 9.75 (+4.3 m/s) in Austin, Texas on 30 March 2013.
  • Churandy Martina (AHO) ran 9.76 at altitude (+6.1 m/s) in El Paso on 13 May 2006.
  • Trayvon Bromell (USA) ran 9.76 (+3.7 m/s) in Eugene, Oregon on 26 June 2015.
  • Carl Lewis (USA) ran 9.78 (+5.2 m/s) at the 1988 U.S. Olympic Trials in Indianapolis.
  • Andre Cason (USA) twice ran 9.79 (+4.5 m/s) and (+5.3 m/s) in Eugene, Oregon on 16 June 1993.

All-time top 25 women

  • Correct as of June 2017. [4]
Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 10.49 0.0 Florence Griffith-Joyner United States 16 July 1988 Indianapolis
2 10.64 +1.2 Carmelita Jeter
Image
Christine Arron (left) wins the 100 m at the Weltklasse meeting.
20 September 2009Shanghai3 10.65 +1.1 Marion Jones United States12 September 1998 Johannesburg 4 10.70 +0.6 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce Jamaica29 June 2012 Kingston +0.3 Elaine Thompson Jamaica1 July 2016 Kingston [4] 6 10.73 +2.0 Christine Arron France19 August 1998 Budapest 7 10.74 +1.3 Merlene Ottey Jamaica7 September 1996 Milan +1.0 English Gardner United States3 July 2016 Eugene [66] 9 10.75 +0.4 Kerron Stewart Jamaica10 July 2009Rome10 10.76 +1.7 Evelyn Ashford United States22 August 1984 Zürich +1.1 Veronica Campbell-Brown Jamaica31 May 2011 Ostrava 12 10.77 +0.9 Irina Privalova Russia6 July 1994 Lausanne +0.7 Ivet Lalova Bulgaria19 June 2004 Plovdiv 14 10.78 +1.0 Dawn Sowell United States3 June 1989 Provo 10.78 +1.8 Torri Edwards United States26 June 2008 Eugene +1.6 Murielle Ahoure Ivory Coast11 June 2016 Montverde [4] +1.0 Tianna Bartoletta United States3 July 2016 Eugene [66] +1.0 Tori Bowie United States3 July 2016 Eugene [66] 19 10.79 0.0 Li Xuemei People's Republic of China18 October 1997Shanghai−0.1 Inger Miller United States22 August 1999 Seville +1.1 Blessing Okagbare Nigeria27 July 2013London22 10.81 +1.7 Marlies Göhr East Germany8 June 1983Berlin−0.3 Dafne Schippers Netherlands24 August 2015 Beijing [4] 24 10.82 −1.0 Gail Devers United States1 August 1992 Barcelona +1.57 July 1993 Lausanne -0.316 August 1993 Stuttgart +0.4 Gwen Torrence United States3 September 1994Paris−0.3 Zhanna Block Ukraine6 August 2001 Edmonton −0.7 Sherone Simpson Jamaica24 June 2006 Kingston +0.9 Michelle-Lee Ahye Trinidad and Tobago24 June 2017Port of Spain [4]

More facts about these female runners

  • Florence Griffith-Joyner's world record has been the subject of a controversy due to strong suspicion of a defective anemometer measuring a tailwind lower than actually present; [4] since 1997 the International Athletics Annual of the Association of Track and Field Statisticians has listed this performance as "probably strongly wind assisted, but recognised as a world record". [4] It can be reasonable to assume a wind reading of about +4.7 m/s for Griffith-Joyner's quarter-final. Her 10.61 the following day and 10.62 at the 1988 Olympics would still make her the world record holder. [4]

Below is a list of all other legal times equal or superior to 10.77:

  • As well as the 10.61 (1988) and 10.62 (1988) mentioned in the more facts section, Florence Griffith-Joyner also ran 10.70 (1988).
  • Carmelita Jeter also ran 10.67 (2009), 10.70 (2011).
  • Marion Jones also ran 10.70 (1999), 10.71 (1998), 10.71 (1998), 10.71 (1998), 10.72 (1998), 10.72 (1998), 10.75 (1998), 10.76 (1997, 1999), 10.77 (1998).
  • Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce also ran 10.71 (2013), 10.72 (2013), 10.73 (2009), 10.74 (2015), 10.75 (2012), 10.76 (2015), 10.77 (2013).
  • Elaine Thompson also ran 10.71 (2016, 2017), 10.72 (2016).
  • Kerron Stewart also ran 10.75 (August 2009).

Assisted marks

Any performance with a following wind of more than 2.0 metres per second is not counted for record purposes. Below is a list of the fastest wind-assisted times (10.82 or better). Only times that are superior to legal bests are shown.

  • Tori Bowie of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.72 (+3.2) in Eugene, Oregon on 26 June 2015 and 10.74 (+3.1) on July 3 2016.
  • Tawanna Meadows of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.72 (+4.5) in Lubbock, Texas on 6 May 2017.
  • Blessing Okagbare of Nigeria ran a wind-assisted 10.75 (+2.2) in Eugene, Oregon on 1 June 2013.
  • Marshevet Hooker of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.76 (+3.4) in Eugene, Oregon on 27 June 2008.
  • Gail Devers of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.77 (+2.3) in San Jose, California on 28 May 1994.
  • Ekateríni Thánou of Greece ran a wind-assisted 10.77 (+2.3) in Rethimnó, Greece on 29 May 1999.
  • Gwen Torrence of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.78 (+5.0) in Indianapolis, Indiana on 16 July 1988.
  • Muna Lee of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.78 (+3.3) in Eugene, Oregon on 26 June 2009.
  • Marlies Göhr of East Germany ran a wind-assisted 10.79 (+3.3) in Cottbus, East Germany on 16 July 1980.
  • Kelli White of the USA ran a wind assisted 10.79 (+2.3) in Carson, California on June 1, 2001. This performance was later annulled due to doping offence.
  • Pam Marshall of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.80 (+2.9) in Eugene, Oregon on 20 June 1986.
  • Jenna Prandini of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.81 (+3.6) in Eugene, Oregon on 2 July 2016.
  • Silke Gladisch of East Germany ran a wind-assisted 10.82 (+2.2) in Rome, Italy on 30 August 1987.

Best Year Performances

Top 10 Junior (under-20) men

Updated 24 June 2017 [4]

Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Age Ref
1 9.97 +1.8 Trayvon Bromell United States 13 June 2014 Eugene
2 10.00 +1.6 Trentavis Friday United States 5 July 2014 Eugene
3 10.01 +0.0 Darrel Brown Trinidad and Tobago 24 August 2003 Saint-Denis
+1.6 Jeff Demps United States 28 June 2008 Eugene
+0.9 [5] Yoshihide Kiryu Japan 29 April 2013 Hiroshima
6 10.03 +0.7 Marcus Rowland United States 31 July 2009 Port of Spain
7 10.04 +1.7 D'Angelo Cherry United States 10 June 2009 Fayetteville
+0.2 Christophe Lemaitre France 24 July 2009 Novi Sad
+1.9 Abdullah Abkar Mohammed Saudi Arabia 15 April 2016 Norwalk [5]
10 10.05 +0.1 Adam Gemili Great Britain 11 July 2012 Barcelona
+0.5 Abdul Hakim Sani Brown Japan 24 June 2017 Osaka 18 years, 110 days [5]
-0.6 4 August 2017 London 18 years, 151 days [5]

Notes

  • British sprinter Mark Lewis-Francis recorded a time of 9.97 seconds on 5 August 2001 (aged 18 years, 334 days) but the wind gauge malfunctioned, invalidating the run.
  • Nigerian sprinter Davidson Ezinwa ran 10.05 (4 January 1990), but without wind gauge.
  • Trayvon Bromell recorded a time of 9.77 s with a strong tailwind of +4.2 m/s on May 2014 during the Big 12 Outdoor Track Championships [5]

Top 10 Junior (under-20) women

Updated 30 June 2017

Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Age Ref
1 10.88 +2.0 Marlies Göhr East Germany 1 July 1977 Dresden
2 10.89 +1.8 Katrin Krabbe East Germany 20 July 1988 Berlin
3 10.98 +2.0 Candace Hill United States 20 June 2015 Shoreline [46]
4 10.99 +0.9 Ángela Tenorio Ecuador 22 July 2015 Toronto [5]
5 11.03 +1.7 Silke Gladisch-Möller East Germany 8 June 1983 Berlin
+0.6 English Gardner United States 14 May 2011 Tucson
7 11.04 +1.4 Angela Williams United States 5 June 1999 Boise
8 11.06 +0.9 Khalifa St. Fort Trinidad and Tobago 24 June 2017 Port of Spain 19 years, 131 days [5]
9 11.07 +0.7 Bianca Knight United States 27 June 2008 Eugene
10 11.08 +2.0 Brenda Morehead United States 21 June 1976 Eugene

Top 15 Youth (under-18) boys

Updated 31 March 2017

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location Ref
1 10.15 +2.0 Anthony Schwartz United States 31 March 2017 Gainesville [5]
2 10.18 +1.1 Khairul Hafiz Jantan Malaysia 27 July 2016 Kuching [5]
3 10.19 +0.5 Yoshihide Kiryu Japan 3 November 2012 Fukuroi
4 10.20 +1.5 Tlotliso Leotlela South Africa 7 September 2015 Apia [6]
5 10.23 +0.8 Tamunosiki Atorudibo Nigeria 23 March 2002 Enugu
+1.2 Rynell Parson United States 21 June 2007 Indianapolis
7 10.24 +0.0 Darrel Brown Trinidad and Tobago 14 April 2001 Bridgetown
8 10.25 +1.5 J-Mee Samuels United States 11 July 2004 Knoxville
+1.6 Jeff Demps United States 1 August 2007 Knoxville
+0.9 Jhevaughn Matherson Jamaica 5 March 2016 Kingston [6]
11 10.26 +1.2 Deworski Odom United States 21 July 1994 Lisboa
−0.1 Sunday Emmanuel Nigeria 18 March 1995 Bauchi
13 10.27 +0.2 Henry Thomas United States 19 May 1984 Norwalk
+1.6 Curtis Johnson United States 30 June 1990 Fresno
+1.0 Ivory Williams United States 8 June 2002 Sacramento
−0.2 Jazeel Murphy Jamaica 23 April 2011 Montego Bay
+1.9 Raheem Chambers Jamaica 20 April 2014 Fort-de-France

Top 10 Youth (under-18) girls

Updated 20 June 2015

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 10.98 +2.0 Candace Hill United States 20 June 2015 Shoreline [46]
2 11.10 +0.9 Kaylin Whitney United States 5 July 2014 Eugene [6]
3 11.13 +2.0 Chandra Cheeseborough United States 21 June 1976 Eugene
4 11.14 +1.7 Marion Jones United States 6 June 1992 Norwalk
−0.5 Angela Williams United States 21 June 1997 Edwardsville
6 11.16 +1.2 Gabrielle Mayo United States 22 June 2006 Indianapolis
7 11.17 A +0.6 Wendy Vereen United States 3 July 1983 Colorado Springs
8 11.20 A +1.2 Raelene Boyle Australia 15 October 1968 Mexico City
9 11.24 -1.0 Ewa Swoboda Poland 4 June 2015 Sankt Pölten
10 11.24 +1.2 Jeneba Tarmoh United States 22 June 2006 Indianapolis
+0.8 Jodie Williams Great Britain 31 May 2010 Bedford

Paralympic men

Updated to September 2017 [6]

Class Record Wind (m/s) Athlete Nationality Date Place Ref
T11 10.92 +1.8 David Brown United States 18 April 2014 Walnut
T12 10.66 −0.4 Elchin Muradov Azerbaijan 19 June 2010 Imola
T13 10.46 +0.6 Jason Smyth
Image
Jason Smyth (in lane five) breaking the men's T13 world record at the 2012 Paralympic Games in London.
1 September 2012 London T32 23.250.0Martin McDonagh Ireland13 August 1999 Nottingham T33 16.81+0.8 Ahmad Almutairi Kuwait20 October 2014 Incheon T34 15.33+1.2 Walid Ktila Tunisia27 February 2014 Sharjah T35 12.22+0.7Ihor Tsvietov Ukraine9 September 2016Rio de Janeiro [6] T36 11.90-0.5 Evgenii Shvetcov Russia22 July 2013 Lyon T37 11.42+0.2 Charl du Toit South Africa10 September 2016Rio de Janeiro [6] T38 10.74–0.3 Hu Jianwen China13 September 2016Rio de Janeiro [6] T42 12.11+1.2 Heinrich Popow Germany12 July 2013 Leverkusen T43 10.57+1.9 Alan Fonteles Cardoso Oliveira Brazil28 July 2013London T44 10.61+1.4 Richard Browne United States29 October 2015Doha [6] T45 10.94+0.2 Yohansson Nascimento Brazil6 September 2012London T47 10.53+0.1 Petrucio Ferreira dos Santos Brazil15 July 2017London [6] T51 21.11+1.2 Toni Piispanen Finland17 May 2012 Pratteln T52 16.73+0.4 Paul Nitz United States20 May 2012 Nottwil T53 14.17+1.0 Brent Lakatos Canada17 May 2014Nottwil T54 13.63+1.0 Leo-Pekka Tähti Finland1 September 2012London

Paralympic women

Updated to April 2017 [6]

Classification Record Wind (m/s) Athlete Nationality Date Place Ref
T11 11.91 +0.7 Libby Clegg Great Britain 9 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro
T12 11.40 +0.2 Omara Durand Cuba 9 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro
T13 11.79 +0.5 Leilia Adzhametova Ukraine 11 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro
T32 37.67 0.0 Lindsay Wright United Kingdom 25 July 1997 Nottingham
T33 21.59 −0.4 Kristen Messer United States 31 August 2012 London
T34 17.31 +1.0 Hannah Cockroft United Kingdom 17 May 2014 Nottwil
T35 13.63 +2.0 Isis Holt Australia 29 October 2015 Doha
T36 13.82 +0.3 Wang Fang People's Republic of China 16 September 2008 Beijing
T37 13.13 +1.6 Georgina Hermitage Great Britain 9 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro
T38 12.60 +1.6 Sophie Hahn Great Britain 22 October 2015 Doha
T42 14.61 -0.2 Martina Caironi Italy 30 October 2015 Doha
T43 12.80 +1.0 Marlou van Rhijn Netherlands 29 October 2015 Doha
T44 12.93 –0.4 Sophie Kamlish Great Britain 17 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro
T45 14.00 0.0 G Cole Canada 2 June 1980 Arnhem
T46 11.95 −0.2 Yunidis Castillo Cuba 4 September 2012 London
T51 32.08 0.0 V Hill United States 27 August 1989 Stoke Mandeville
T52 18.67 +1.7 Michelle Stilwell Canada 14 July 2012 Windsor
T53 16.19 +1.0 Huang Lisha China 8 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro
T54 15.82 +0.5 Wenjun Liu People's Republic of China 8 September 2012 London

Olympic medallists

Men

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
Thomas Burke ( USA) Fritz Hofmann ( GER) Francis Lane ( USA)
Alajos Szokolyi ( HUN)
1900 Paris
Frank Jarvis ( USA) Walter Tewksbury ( USA) Stan Rowley ( AUS)
1904 St. Louis
Archie Hahn ( USA) Nathaniel Cartmell ( USA) William Hogenson ( USA)
1908 London
Reggie Walker ( RSA) James Rector ( USA) Robert Kerr ( CAN)
1912 Stockholm
Ralph Craig ( USA) Alvah Meyer ( USA) Donald Lippincott ( USA)
1920 Antwerp
Charley Paddock ( USA) Morris Kirksey ( USA) Harry Edward ( GBR)
1924 Paris
Harold Abrahams ( GBR) Jackson Scholz ( USA) Arthur Porritt, Baron Porritt ( NZL)
1928 Amsterdam
Percy Williams ( CAN) Jack London ( GBR) Georg Lammers ( GER)
1932 Los Angeles
Eddie Tolan ( USA) Ralph Metcalfe ( USA) Arthur Jonath ( GER)
1936 Berlin
Jesse Owens ( USA) Ralph Metcalfe ( USA) Tinus Osendarp ( NED)
1948 London
Harrison Dillard ( USA) Barney Ewell ( USA) Lloyd LaBeach ( PAN)
1952 Helsinki
Lindy Remigino ( USA) Herb McKenley ( JAM) McDonald Bailey ( GBR)
1956 Melbourne
Bobby Morrow ( USA) Thane Baker ( USA) Hector Hogan ( AUS)
1960 Rome
Armin Hary ( EUA) Dave Sime ( USA) Peter Radford ( GBR)
1964 Tokyo
Bob Hayes ( USA) Enrique Figuerola ( CUB) Harry Jerome ( CAN)
1968 Mexico City
Jim Hines ( USA) Lennox Miller ( JAM) Charles Greene ( USA)
1972 Munich
Valeriy Borzov ( URS) Robert Taylor ( USA) Lennox Miller ( JAM)
1976 Montreal
Hasely Crawford ( TRI) Don Quarrie ( JAM) Valeriy Borzov ( URS)
1980 Moscow
Allan Wells ( GBR) Silvio Leonard ( CUB) Petar Petrov ( BUL)
1984 Los Angeles
Carl Lewis ( USA) Sam Graddy ( USA) Ben Johnson ( CAN)
1988 Seoul [8] [8]
Carl Lewis ( USA) Linford Christie ( GBR) Calvin Smith ( USA)
1992 Barcelona
Linford Christie ( GBR) Frankie Fredericks ( NAM) Dennis Mitchell ( USA)
1996 Atlanta
Donovan Bailey ( CAN) Frankie Fredericks ( NAM) Ato Boldon ( TRI)
2000 Sydney
Maurice Greene ( USA) Ato Boldon ( TRI) Obadele Thompson ( BAR)
2004 Athens
Justin Gatlin ( USA) Francis Obikwelu ( POR) Maurice Greene ( USA)
2008 Beijing
Usain Bolt ( JAM) Richard Thompson ( TRI) Walter Dix ( USA)
2012 London
Usain Bolt ( JAM) Yohan Blake ( JAM) Justin Gatlin ( USA)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
Usain Bolt ( JAM) Justin Gatlin ( USA) Andre De Grasse ( CAN)

Women

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1928 Amsterdam
Betty Robinson ( USA) Fanny Rosenfeld ( CAN) Ethel Smith ( CAN)
1932 Los Angeles
Stanisława Walasiewicz ( POL) Hilda Strike ( CAN) Wilhelmina von Bremen ( USA)
1936 Berlin
Helen Stephens ( USA) Stanisława Walasiewicz ( POL) Käthe Krauß ( GER)
1948 London
Fanny Blankers-Koen ( NED) Dorothy Manley ( GBR) Shirley Strickland ( AUS)
1952 Helsinki
Marjorie Jackson ( AUS) Daphne Hasenjager ( RSA) Shirley Strickland de la Hunty ( AUS)
1956 Melbourne
Betty Cuthbert ( AUS) Christa Stubnick ( EUA) Marlene Matthews ( AUS)
1960 Rome
Wilma Rudolph ( USA) Dorothy Hyman ( GBR) Giuseppina Leone ( ITA)
1964 Tokyo
Wyomia Tyus ( USA) Edith McGuire ( USA) Ewa Kłobukowska ( POL)
1968 Mexico City
Wyomia Tyus ( USA) Barbara Ferrell ( USA) Irena Szewińska ( POL)
1972 Munich
Renate Stecher ( GDR) Raelene Boyle ( AUS) Silvia Chivás ( CUB)
1976 Montreal
Annegret Richter ( FRG) Renate Stecher ( GDR) Inge Helten ( FRG)
1980 Moscow
Lyudmila Kondratyeva ( URS) Marlies Göhr ( GDR) Ingrid Auerswald ( GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
Evelyn Ashford ( USA) Alice Brown ( USA) Merlene Ottey ( JAM)
1988 Seoul
Florence Griffith-Joyner ( USA) Evelyn Ashford ( USA) Heike Drechsler ( GDR)
1992 Barcelona
Gail Devers ( USA) Juliet Cuthbert ( JAM) Irina Privalova ( EUN)
1996 Atlanta
Gail Devers ( USA) Merlene Ottey ( JAM) Gwen Torrence ( USA)
2000 Sydney
Vacant Ekaterini Thanou ( GRE) Merlene Ottey ( JAM)
Tayna Lawrence ( JAM)
2004 Athens
Yulia Nestsiarenka ( BLR) Lauryn Williams ( USA) Veronica Campbell ( JAM)
2008 Beijing
Shelly-Ann Fraser ( JAM) Sherone Simpson ( JAM) none awarded
Kerron Stewart ( JAM)
2012 London
Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce ( JAM) Carmelita Jeter ( USA) Veronica Campbell-Brown ( JAM)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
Elaine Thompson ( JAM) Tori Bowie ( USA) Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce ( JAM)

World Championship medallists

Men

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
Carl Lewis ( USA ) Calvin Smith ( USA ) Emmit King ( USA )
1987 Rome
Carl Lewis ( USA ) Raymond Stewart ( JAM ) Linford Christie ( GBR )
1991 Tokyo
Carl Lewis ( USA ) Leroy Burrell ( USA ) Dennis Mitchell ( USA )
1993 Stuttgart
Linford Christie ( GBR ) Andre Cason ( USA ) Dennis Mitchell ( USA )
1995 Gothenburg
Donovan Bailey ( CAN ) Bruny Surin ( CAN ) Ato Boldon ( TRI )
1997 Athens
Maurice Greene ( USA ) Donovan Bailey ( CAN ) Tim Montgomery ( USA )
1999 Seville
Maurice Greene ( USA ) Bruny Surin ( CAN ) Dwain Chambers ( GBR )
2001 Edmonton
Maurice Greene ( USA ) Bernard Williams ( USA ) Ato Boldon ( TRI )
2003 Saint-Denis
Kim Collins ( SKN ) Darrel Brown ( TRI ) Darren Campbell ( GBR )
2005 Helsinki
Justin Gatlin ( USA ) Michael Frater ( JAM ) Kim Collins ( SKN )
2007 Osaka
Tyson Gay ( USA ) Derrick Atkins ( BAH ) Asafa Powell ( JAM )
2009 Berlin
Usain Bolt ( JAM ) Tyson Gay ( USA ) Asafa Powell ( JAM )
2011 Daegu
Yohan Blake ( JAM ) Walter Dix ( USA ) Kim Collins ( SKN )
2013 Moscow
Usain Bolt ( JAM ) Justin Gatlin ( USA ) Nesta Carter ( JAM )
2015 Beijing
Usain Bolt ( JAM ) Justin Gatlin ( USA ) Trayvon Bromell ( USA )
Andre De Grasse ( CAN )
2017 London
Justin Gatlin ( USA ) Christian Coleman ( USA ) Usain Bolt ( JAM )

Women

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
Marlies Oelsner-Göhr ( GDR ) Marita Koch ( GDR ) Diane Williams ( USA )
1987 Rome
Silke Gladisch-Möller ( GDR ) Heike Daute-Drechsler ( GDR ) Merlene Ottey ( JAM )
1991 Tokyo
Katrin Krabbe ( GER ) Gwen Torrence ( USA ) Merlene Ottey ( JAM )
1993 Stuttgart
Gail Devers ( USA ) Merlene Ottey ( JAM ) Gwen Torrence ( USA )
1995 Gothenburg
Gwen Torrence ( USA ) Merlene Ottey ( JAM ) Irina Privalova ( RUS )
1997 Athens
Marion Jones ( USA ) Zhanna Pintusevich ( UKR ) Savatheda Fynes ( BAH )
1999 Seville
Marion Jones ( USA ) Inger Miller ( USA ) Ekaterini Thanou ( GRE )
2001 Edmonton
Zhanna Pintusevich-Block ( UKR ) Ekaterini Thanou ( GRE ) Chandra Sturrup ( BAH )
2003 Saint-Denis
Torri Edwards ( USA ) Chandra Sturrup ( BAH ) Ekaterini Thanou ( GRE )
2005 Helsinki
Lauryn Williams ( USA ) Veronica Campbell ( JAM ) Christine Arron ( FRA )
2007 Osaka
Veronica Campbell-Brown ( JAM ) Lauryn Williams ( USA ) Carmelita Jeter ( USA )
2009 Berlin
Shelly-Ann Fraser ( JAM ) Kerron Stewart ( JAM ) Carmelita Jeter ( USA )
2011 Daegu
Carmelita Jeter ( USA ) Veronica Campbell-Brown ( JAM ) Kelly-Ann Baptiste ( TRI )
2013 Moscow
Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce ( JAM ) Murielle Ahouré ( CIV ) Carmelita Jeter ( USA )
2015 Beijing
Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce ( JAM ) Dafne Schippers ( NED ) Tori Bowie ( USA )
2017 London
Tori Bowie ( USA ) Marie-Josée Ta Lou ( CIV ) Dafne Schippers ( NED )

See also