Roy Halston Frowick (April 23, 1932 – March 26, 1990), known simply as Halston, was an American fashion designer who rose to international fame in the 1970s. His minimalist, clean designs, often made of cashmere or ultrasuede, were popular fashion wear in mid-1970s discotheques and redefined American fashion.The American designer, Halston was well known for creating a style for “American Women”. From his point of view, the “American Women” was about having a relaxed urban lifestyle. He created a new phenomenon in the 1970s. Halston believed in women can wear the same clothing for the entire day on any occasion.
Roy Halston Frowick was born on April 23, 1932 in Des Moines, Iowa, the second son of a Norwegian-American accountant James Edward Frowick and his seamstress wife Hallie Mae (née Holmes). Halston developed an interest in sewing from his mother, and he began creating hats and altering clothes for his mother and sister as a boy. He graduated Benjamin Bosse High School in Evansville, Indiana, in 1950, then attended Indiana University before enrolling at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago.
In 1952, Halston moved to Chicago, where he enrolled in a night course at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and he worked as a window dresser. In 1953, he opened his own hat business. His first customer was radio actress and comedian Fran Allison. Halston's hats were additionally bought by Kim Novak, Gloria Swanson, Deborah Kerr and Hedda Hopper.
Halston's first big break came when the Chicago Daily News ran a brief storey on his fashionable hats. In 1957, he opened his first shop, the Boulevard Salon, on North Michigan Avenue. It was at this point that he began to use his middle name as his professional moniker. During his childhood he had been referred to as Halston to distinguish between himself and his uncle Roy. Halston moved to New York City in late 1957, first working for milliner Lilly Daché. Within a year, he had been named the co-designer at Daché, became acquainted with several fashion editors and publishers, and left Daché's studio to become head milliner for department store Bergdorf Goodman in their customer milliner salon.
Halston achieved great fame after designing the pillbox hat Jacqueline Kennedy wore to her husband's presidential inauguration in 1961, and when he moved to designing women's wear, Newsweek dubbed him "the premier fashion designer of all America." When hats fell out of fashion, Halston moved on to designing clothing, made possible by Estelle Marsh, a Texas millionairess from Amarillo, Texas. Mrs. Marsh was his sole financial backer throughout this critical time of development. He opened his first boutique on Madison Avenue in 1968. The collection that year included a dark jade velvet wedding gown for advertising executive Mary Wells Lawrence. Lawrence was married to the CEO of Braniff International Airways, Harding Lawrence. She would be instrumental in bringing Halston to Braniff in 1976 to design Braniff's Hostess, pilot, ticket agent, and ground personnel uniforms.
Halston launched his first ready-to-wear line, Halston Limited, in 1969. Halston’s design was usually simple and minimalist but sophisticated, glamorous, but additionally comfortable at the same time. Halston like to use soft, luxurious fabric like silk and chiffon.. He later told Vogue that he got rid of "...all of the additional details that didn't work—bows that didn't tie, buttons that didn't button, zippers that didn't zip, wrap dresses that didn't wrap. I've always hated things that don't work."Another design characteristics was the use of bias. He believed that clothes cut and sew from the bias of every fabric can develop this sexiness, polished image. In past history, people had the interpretation that shows a woman’s body shape was mainly through the curve of the clothing. Halston changed the fitted silhouette and created a new definition of showing the female body shape by allowing the natural flow of the fabric to create its own shape. Halston said “Pants give women the freedom to move around they've never had before. They don't have to worry about getting into low furniture or low sportscars. Pants will be with us for a large number of years to come —probably forever if you can make that statement in fashion.” In the 1970s, his ultra-suede suit was a big hit. He brought in functionality into fashion. He designed the Ultrasuede shirtdress and re-introduce pants for women. The shirtdress was interpreted as an elongated men shirt. He additionally included elements of sportswear and combined it into women’s clothing and merging features from both women wear and menswear together.
Halston's boutique drew celebrity clients like Babe Paley, Anjelica Huston, Gene Tierney, Lauren Bacall, Margaux Hemingway, Elizabeth Taylor, Bianca Jagger and Liza Minnelli (both Jagger and Minnelli would become close friends). From 1968 to 1973, his line earned an estimated $30 million. In 1973, Halston sold his line to Norton Simon, Inc. for $16 million but remained its principal designer. This afforded him creative control with near unlimited financial backing. In 1975, Max Factor released Halston's first namesake fragrance for women. By 1977, sales from the perfume had generated $85 million in sales. Throughout the 1970s, Halston had expanded his line to include menswear, luggage, handbags, lingerie and bedding. Vogue later noted that Halston was responsible for popularising caftans (which he made for Jacqueline Kennedy), matte jersey halter top dresses and introduced polyurethane into American fashion.
Uniforms for Braniff Airways
Halston was quite influential in the design of uniforms. In 1977 he was contracted by Braniff International Airways to create a new look for their flight attendants. The muted browns, with distinctive "H" logo were a world away from the more flamboyant past uniform designs by Emilio Pucci. Halston created interchangeable separates in shades of bone, tan and taupe which the airline extended to the seat covers, using brown Argentinean leather. The entire scheme was dubbed "Ultra Touch" by the airline in reference to Halston's ultrasuede designs and was extremely evocative of the late 1970s. An elaborate party was thrown in February, 1977, dubbed Three Nights In Acapulco, to introduce the new Halston fashions along with the new and elegant Braniff International Airways.
Braniff Chairman Harding Lawrence his wife Mary Wells Lawrence, First Lady Lady Bird Johnson, and Halston himself along with his Halstonettes were in attendance for the grand presentation. Halston and his entourage would arrive at selected points throughout the party in outfits that matched the deep tones of Braniff Airway's new colour schemes that would be applied to their aircraft as part of the new so called Elegance Campaign. The party and the Halston creations were a hit not only with the fashion press but additionally with Braniff employees who thought they were the easiest and most comfortable uniforms they had ever worn.
He was asked by the U.S. Olympic Committee to design the Pan American Games and U.S. Olympic Team's uniforms in 1976. He additionally designed the uniforms for the Girl Scouts, the New York Police Department, and the Avis Rent a Car System.
In 1983, Halston signed a six-year licencing deal, worth a reported $1 billion, with the retail chain J. C. Penney. The line, called Halston III, consisted of affordable clothing, accessories, cosmetics and perfumes ranging from $24 to $200. At the time, the move was considered controversial as no additional high end designer had ever licenced their designs to a mid-priced chain retail store. While Halston was excited about the deal and felt that the it would only expand his brand, the deal damaged his image with high end fashion retailers who felt that his name had been "cheapened". Bergdorf Goodman at the time dropped his Halston Limited line from their store shortly after plans for Halston III were announced. The Halston III line for J. C. Penney was poorly received and was eventually discontinued.
In 1983, Halston Limited, which was owned by Norton Simon, Inc., was acquired by the Esmark Inc. After the acquisition, Halston began to lose control over his namesake company and grew frustrated. As the label changed hands (it would be owned by Playtex International, Beatrice Foods and four additional companies), Halston continued to lose control and, by 1984, was banned from creating designs for Halston Limited. He attempted to buy back his company but failed. Halston Enterprises was eventually acquired by Revlon in 1986. Halston was paid a salary by Revlon but had stopped designing clothing in 1984. After his contract with Revlon expired, he was in talks to sign a new contract with the company but stopped negotiations after he learned that Revlon planned to continue the line without his input. The line continued on with various designers until 1990 when Revlon discontinued the clothing portion of the line but continued selling Halston perfumes.
Halston's long-time lover was Venezuelan-born artist Victor Hugo. The two met while Hugo was working as a rent boy in 1972. The two began a relationship and Hugo moved in to Halston's home. Halston eventually hired Hugo to work as his window dresser. Their on-and-off relationship lasted sixteen years.
In 1988, Halston tested positive for HIV. After his health began to fail, he moved to San Francisco where he was cared for by his family. On March 26, 1990, he died of Kaposi's sarcoma, an AIDS-defining illness, at the Pacific Presbyterian Medical Center in San Francisco. His remains were cremated.
Since Halston's death in 1990, his namesake company has continued to change hands. At various times, there have been attempts to relaunch the line with limited success. After Revlon ceased production of the clothing portion of the company in 1990, it was purchased by Borghese in 1991. In 1996, sportswear firm Tropic Tex bought the Halston clothing licence (Revlon still retains the rights to Halston fragrances) and hired designer Randolph Duke to relaunch the line. Duke's first collection debuted in Fall 1997 to critical acclaim. Mariah Carey, Celine Dion and Minnie Driver (who wore a crimson Halston dress to the 70th Academy Awards ceremony) were among the celebrities to wear the new Halston creations. By 1998, Duke left the company after it was sold to Catterton-Simon, a private equity fund. In 1998, African-American designer, Kevin Hall was hired to design the collection. He left Halston in 2000.
In 1999, Catterton-Simon sold Halston Enterprises to Neema Clothing. Neema's owner, James J. Ammeen, planned to relaunch the Halston line as a luxury brand and hired designer Bradley Bayou. Bayou's line, Bradley Bayou for Halston, was worn by Oprah Winfrey and Queen Latifah. Bayou left Halston in 2005 after Ammeen refused to give Bayou more money for advertising. In 2006, Jimmy Choo co-founder Tamara Mellon, stylist Rachel Zoe and film producer Harvey Weinstein partnered with Hilco Consumer Capital to purchase the line in another effort to relaunch it. Problems about the line's new direction quickly arose when Tamara Mellon and Rachel Zoe couldn't agree on a designer. Former Versace designer Marco Zanini was eventually hired in July 2007. Zoe later said she was disappointed with Zanini's designs and was shut out of designing process. Despite the numerous issues within the company, Zanini's Halston collection debuted in February 2008 to mixed reviews. Zanini left Halston in July 2008 and British designer, Marios Schwab, was hired in May 2009.
After Schwab was hired, Halston Enterprises decided to launch a second line called Halston Heritage. The Heritage line is based on archived sketches by Halston with modern updates. After actress Sarah Jessica Parker wore two Halston Heritage dresses in the film Sex and the City 2 in 2009, the company hired her as the president and chief creative officer for the main line. She was additionally named the overseer for the Halston Heritage line.
In February 2011, Marios Schwab's first collection for the Halston line debuted to negative critical reception. Schwab left the company shortly thereafter. In the August 2011 issue of American Vogue, Sarah Jessica Parker revealed that she had left the company.
In the media
In 2010, he was the subject of the documentary Ultrasuede: In Search of Halston.