The regions of Italy (Italian: regioni) are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy, constituting its second NUTS administrative level.[4] There are 20 regions, of which five are constitutionally given a broader amount of autonomy granted by special statutes.

Each region, except for the Aosta Valley, is divided into provinces. Regions are autonomous entities with powers defined in the Constitution.

History

As the administrative districts of the central state during the Kingdom of Italy, regions were granted a measure of political autonomy by the 1948 Constitution of the Italian Republic. The original draft list comprised the Salento region (which was eventually included in the Apulia). Friuli and Venezia Giulia were separate regions, and Basilicata was named Lucania. Abruzzo and Molise were identified as separate regions in the first draft. They were later merged into Abruzzo e Molise in the final constitution of 1948. They were separated in 1963.

Implementation of regional autonomy was postponed until the first Regional Elections of 1970. The ruling Christian Democracy party did not want the opposition Italian Communist Party to gain power in the regions, where it was historically rooted (the red belt of Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria and the Marches).

Regions acquired a significant level of autonomy following a constitutional reform in 2001 (brought about by a centre-left government and confirmed by popular referendum), which granted them residual policy competence. A further federalist reform was proposed by the regionalist party Lega Nord and in 2005, the centre-right government led by Silvio Berlusconi proposed a new reform that would have greatly increased the power of regions.[5]

In June 2006 the proposals, which had been particularly associated with Lega Nord, and seen by some as leading the way to a federal state, were rejected in a referendum by 61.7% to 38.3%.[5] The results varied considerably among the regions, ranging from 55.3% in favor in Veneto to 82% against in Calabria.[5]

Regional control

Number of regions controlled by each coalition since 1995:

  Center-left
  Center-right
  Others

Regions

FlagRegion
Italian name
StatusPopulation[6]
January 2016
AreaPop. densityCapital cityPresidentNumber of comuniMetropolitan cities
Number%km²%
Abruzzo
Abruzzo
Ordinary1,326,5132.19%10,8323.59%122L'AquilaLuciano D'Alfonso
Democratic Party
305-
Aosta Valley
Valle d'Aosta
Autonomous127,3290.21%3,2611.08%39AostaLaurent Viérin
Progressive Valdostan Union
74-
Apulia
Puglia
Ordinary4,077,1666.72%19,5416.47%209BariMichele Emiliano
Democratic Party
258Bari
Basilicata
Basilicata
Ordinary573,6940.95%10,0733.33%57PotenzaMarcello Pittella
Democratic Party
131-
Calabria
Calabria
Ordinary1,970,5213.25%15,2225.04%129CatanzaroMario Oliverio
Democratic Party
405Reggio Calabria
Campania
Campania
Ordinary5,850,8509.64%13,6714.53%428NaplesVincenzo De Luca
Democratic Party
550Naples
Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
Ordinary4,448,1467.33%22,4537.43%198BolognaStefano Bonaccini
Democratic Party
333Bologna
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Autonomous1,221,2182.01%7,8622.60%155TriesteDebora Serracchiani
Democratic Party
216-
Lazio
Lazio
Ordinary5,888,4729.70%17,2325.70%342RomeNicola Zingaretti
Democratic Party
378Rome
Liguria
Liguria
Ordinary1,571,0532.59%5,4161.79%290GenoaGiovanni Toti
Forza Italia
235Genoa
Lombardy
Lombardia
Ordinary10,008,34916.50%23,8647.90%419MilanRoberto Maroni
Lega Nord
1,523Milan
Marches
Marche
Ordinary1,543,7522.54%9,4013.11%164AnconaLuca Ceriscioli
Democratic Party
229-
Molise
Molise
Ordinary312,0270.51%4,4611.48%70CampobassoPaolo Di Laura Frattura
Democratic Party
136-
Piedmont
Piemonte
Ordinary4,404,2467.26%25,3878.40%173TurinSergio Chiamparino
Democratic Party
1,202Turin
Sardinia
Sardegna
Autonomous1,658,1382.73%24,1007.98%69CagliariFrancesco Pigliaru
Democratic Party
377Cagliari
Sicily
Sicilia
Autonomous5,074,26111.36%25,8328.55%196PalermoNello Musumeci
Centre-right independent
390Catania
Messina
Palermo
Trentino-South Tyrol
Trentino-Alto Adige
Autonomous1,059,1141.75%13,6064.50%78TrentoArno Kompatscher
South Tyrolean People's Party
293-
Tuscany
Toscana
Ordinary3,744,3986.17%22,9877.61%163FlorenceEnrico Rossi
Article 1 – Democratic and Progressive Movement
276Florence
Umbria
Umbria
Ordinary891,1811.47%8,4642.80%105PerugiaCatiuscia Marini
Democratic Party
92-
Veneto
Veneto
Ordinary4,915,1238.10%18,4076.09%267VeniceLuca Zaia
Lega Nord
575Venice
ITALY60,665,551100%302,073100%201RomeSergio Mattarella
Independent
7,97814

Macroregions

Macroregions are the first-level NUTS of the European Union.(it)

MapMacroregion
Italian name
RegionsMajor cityPopulation
January 2016
Area (km²)Pop. density
Number%km²%
North-West
Nord-Ovest
Aosta Valley
Liguria
Lombardy
Piedmont
Milan16,110,97726.56%57,92819.18%278
North-East
Nord-Est
Emilia-Romagna
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Trentino-South Tyrol
Veneto
Bologna11,643,60119.19%62,32820.63%187
Centre
Centro
Lazio
Marches
Tuscany
Umbria
Rome12,067,80319.89%58,08419.23%208
South
Sud
Abruzzo
Apulia
Basilicata
Calabria
Campania
Molise
Naples14,110,77123.26%73,80024.43%191
Islands
Isole or Insulare (adj)
Sardinia
Sicily
Palermo6,732,39911.10%49,93216.53%135

Status

Every region has a statute that serves as a regional constitution, determining the form of government and the fundamental principles of the organization and the functioning of the region, as prescribed by the Constitution of Italy (Article 123). Although all the regions except Toscana define themselves in various ways as an "autonomous Region" in the first article of their Statutes,[7] fifteen regions have ordinary statutes and five have special statutes, granting them extended autonomy.

Regions with ordinary statute

These regions, whose statutes are approved by their regional councils, were created in 1970, even though the Italian Constitution dates back to 1948. Since the constitutional reform of 2001 they have had residual legislative powers. The regions have exclusive legislative power with respect to any matters not expressly reserved to state law (Article 117).[8] Yet their financial autonomy is quite modest: they just keep 20% of all levied taxes, mostly used to finance the region-based healthcare system.[11]

Autonomous regions with special statute

Article 116 of the Italian Constitution grants to five regions (namely Sardinia, Sicily, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Aosta Valley and Friuli-Venezia Giulia) home rule, acknowledging their powers in relation to legislation, administration and finance. These regions became autonomous in order to take into account cultural differences and protect linguistic minorities. Moreover, the government wanted to prevent their secession from Italy after the Second World War.[12]

Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol constitutes a special case. The region is nearly powerless, and the powers granted by the region's statute are mostly exercised by the two autonomous provinces within the region, Trentino and South Tyrol. In this case, the regional institution plays a coordinating role.

Institutions

Each region has an elected parliament, called Consiglio Regionale (regional council), or Assemblea Regionale (regional assembly) in Sicily, and a government called Giunta Regionale (regional committee), headed by a governor called Presidente della Giunta Regionale (president of the regional committee) or Presidente della Regione (regional president). The latter is directly elected by the citizens of each region, with the exceptions of Aosta Valley and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, where he is chosen by the regional council.

Under the 1995 electoral law, the winning coalition receives an absolute majority of seats on the council. The president chairs the giunta, and nominates or dismisses its members, called assessori. If the directly elected president resigns, new elections are called immediately.

In Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, the regional council is made up of the joint session of the two provincial councils of Trentino and of South Tyrol, and the regional governor is one of the two provincial commissioners.

Representation in the Senate

Article 57 of the Constitution of Italy establishes that the Senate of the Italian Republic is elected on a regional basis (excluding 6 senators elected by Italians residing abroad and a small number of senator for life) by Italian citizens aged 25 or older.

The 309 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population. However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, except for the Aosta Valley (which has one) and Molise (which has two).

RegionSeats[13]RegionSeatsRegionSeats
Image
Number of senators currently assigned to each Region.
Abruzzo
7 Friuli-Venezia Giulia7 Sardinia8
Aosta Valley1 Lazio28 Sicily25
Apulia20 Liguria8 Trentino-South Tyrol7
Basilicata7 Lombardy49 Tuscany18
Calabria10 Marches8 Umbria7
Campania29 Molise2 Veneto24
Emilia-Romagna22 Piedmont22Overseas constituencies6

Economy of regions and macroregions

FlagNameGDP 2011 million, EUR[14]GDP 2011 per capita 2011, EUR[14]GDP 2011 million PPS, EUR[14]GDP 2011 per capita 2011 PPS, EUR[14]
Abruzzo30,07322,40029,43821,900
Aosta Valley4,32833,7004,23633,000
Apulia69,97417,10068,49616,700
Basilicata10,74418,30010,51717,900
Calabria33,05516,40032,35716,100
Campania93,63516,00091,65815,700
Emilia-Romagna142,60932,100139,59731,400
Friuli-Venezia Giulia36,62829,60035,85529,000
Lazio172,24629,900168,60929,300
Liguria43,99827,20043,06926,700
Lombardy337,16133,900330,04233,200
Marches40,87726,10040,01425,500
Molise6,41420,1006,27819,700
Piedmont125,99728,200123,33627,600
Sardinia33,07519,70032,37719,300
Sicily83,95616,60082,18316,300
Trentino-Alto Adige35,79734,45035,04133,700
Tuscany106,01328,200103,77527,600
Umbria21,53323,70021,07823,200
Veneto149,52730,200146,36929,600
CodeNameGDP 2011 million, EUR[14]GDP 2011 per capita 2011, EUR[14]GDP 2011 million PPS, EUR[14]GDP 2011 per capita 2011 PPS, EUR[14]
ITECentre340,66928,400333,47527,800
ITDNorth-East364,56031,200356,86230,600
ITCNorth-West511,48431,700500,68331,000
ITGIslands117,03117,400114,56017,000
ITFSouth243,89517,200238,74416,800
-Extra-regio2,771-2,712-

The extra-regio territory is made up of parts of the economic territory of a country which cannot be assigned to a single region. It consists of the national air-space, territorial waters and the continental shelf lying in international waters over which the country enjoys exclusive rights, territorial exclaves, deposits of oil, natural gas etc. worked by resident units. Until 2011, the gross value added (GVA) produced in the extra-regio was allocated pro-rata to the inhabited regions of the country concerned. The order of magnitude of the extra-regio GVA depends in particular on the resource endowment in terms of natural gas and oil. In 2011, Member States and the European Commission agreed to give countries the possibility to calculate regional GDP also for the extra-regio. The resulting GDP is available only in absolute values, because the extra-regio territory by definition does not have a resident population.

See also

Other administrative divisions