The regions of Italy (Italian: regioni) are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy, constituting its second NUTS administrative level.[2] There are 20 regions, of which five are constitutionally given a broader amount of autonomy granted by special statutes.

Each region, except for the Aosta Valley, is divided into provinces. Regions are autonomous entities with powers defined in the Constitution.

History

As the administrative districts of the central state during the Kingdom of Italy, regions were granted a measure of political autonomy by the 1948 Constitution of the Italian Republic. The original draft list comprised the Salento region (which was eventually included in the Apulia). Friuli and Venezia Giulia were separate regions, and Basilicata was named Lucania. Abruzzo and Molise were identified as separate regions in the first draft. They were later merged into Abruzzo e Molise in the final constitution of 1948. They were separated in 1963.

Implementation of regional autonomy was postponed until the first Regional Elections of 1970. The ruling Christian Democracy party did not want the opposition Italian Communist Party to gain power in the regions, where it was historically rooted (the red belt of Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria and Marche).

Regions acquired a significant level of autonomy following a constitutional reform in 2001 (brought about by a centre-left government and confirmed by popular referendum), which granted them residual policy competence. A further federalist reform was proposed by the regionalist party Lega Nord and in 2005, the centre-right government led by Silvio Berlusconi proposed a new reform that would have greatly increased the power of regions.[3]

In June 2006 the proposals, which had been particularly associated with Lega Nord, and seen by some as leading the way to a federal state, were rejected in a referendum by 61.7% to 38.3%.[3] The results varied considerably among the regions, ranging from 55.3% in favour in Veneto to 82% against in Calabria.[3]

Regional control

Number of regions controlled by each coalition since 1995:

  Center-left
  Center-right
  Others

Regions and macroregions

FlagRegion
Italian name
Capital cityArea (km2)Population[4]
January 2015
Pop. densityComuni[4]Metropolitan citiesStatusMacroregionGovernor or President
Abruzzo
Abruzzo
L'Aquila10,7631,331,574123305-OrdinarySouthLuciano D'Alfonso
Democratic Party
Aosta Valley
Valle d'Aosta
Aosta3,263128,2983974-AutonomousNorth-WestAugusto Rollandin
Union Valdôtaine
Apulia
Puglia
Bari19,3584,090,105211258BariOrdinarySouthMichele Emiliano
Democratic Party
Basilicata
Basilicata
Potenza9,995576,61957131-OrdinarySouthMarcello Pittella
Democratic Party
Calabria
Calabria
Catanzaro15,0811,976,631130409Reggio CalabriaOrdinarySouthMario Oliverio
Democratic Party
Campania
Campania
Naples13,5905,861,529429550NaplesOrdinarySouthVincenzo De Luca
Democratic Party
Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
Bologna22,4464,450,508198334BolognaOrdinaryNorth-EastStefano Bonaccini
Democratic Party
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Trieste7,8581,227,122156216AutonomousNorth-EastDebora Serracchiani
Democratic Party
Lazio
Lazio
Rome17,2365,892,425342378RomeOrdinaryCentreNicola Zingaretti
Democratic Party
Liguria
Liguria
Genoa5,4221,583,263292235GenoaOrdinaryNorth-WestGiovanni Toti
Forza Italia
Lombardy
Lombardia
Milan23,86110,002,6154191,528MilanOrdinaryNorth-WestRoberto Maroni
Lega Nord
Marche
Marche
Ancona9,3661,550,796165236-OrdinaryCentreLuca Ceriscioli
Democratic Party
Molise
Molise
Campobasso4,438313,34870136-OrdinarySouthPaolo Di Laura Frattura
Democratic Party
Piedmont
Piemonte
Turin25,4024,424,4671741,202TurinOrdinaryNorth-WestSergio Chiamparino
Democratic Party
Sardinia
Sardegna
Cagliari24,0901,663,28669377AutonomousIslandsFrancesco Pigliaru
Democratic Party
Sicily
Sicilia
Palermo25,7115,092,080197390AutonomousIslandsRosario Crocetta
Democratic Party
Trentino-South Tyrol
Trentino-Alto Adige
Trento13,6071,055,93478294-AutonomousNorth-EastUgo Rossi
PATT
Tuscany
Toscana
Florence22,9943,752,654163279FlorenceOrdinaryCentreEnrico Rossi
Democratic Party
Umbria
Umbria
Perugia8,456894,76210692-OrdinaryCentreCatiuscia Marini
Democratic Party
Veneto
Veneto
Venice18,3994,927,596268576VeniceOrdinaryNorth-EastLuca Zaia
Lega Nord
ITALYRome301,33660,795,6122018,000Sergio Mattarella
Independent

Macroregions are the first-level NUTS of the European Union:

MapMacroregion
Italian name
Major cityArea (km2)Population[5]
November 2014
Pop. densityComuniNo. of Metropolitan cities
North-West
Nord-Ovest
Milan57,93116,139,142278.593,0593
North-East
Nord-Est
Bologna62,31011,662,318187.161,4803
Centre
Centro
Rome58,05112,086,829208.219962
South
Sud
Naples73,22414,150,037193.241,7904
Islands
Isole or Insulare
Palermo49,8016,750,519135.547674

Status

Every region has a statute that serves as a regional constitution, determining the form of government and the fundamental principles of the organization and the functioning of the region, as prescribed by the Constitution of Italy (Article 123). Although all the regions except Toscana define themselves in various ways as an "autonomous Region" in the first article of their Statutes,[6] fifteen regions have ordinary statutes and five have special statutes, granting them extended autonomy.

Regions with ordinary statute

These regions, whose statutes are approved by their regional councils, were created in 1970, even though the Italian Constitution dates back to 1948. Since the constitutional reform of 2001 they have had residual legislative powers. The regions have exclusive legislative power with respect to any matters not expressly reserved to state law (Article 117).[7] Yet their financial autonomy is quite modest: they just keep 20% of all levied taxes, mostly used to finance the region-based healthcare system.[10]

Autonomous regions with special statute

Article 116 of the Italian Constitution grants to five regions (namely Sardinia, Sicily, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Aosta Valley and Friuli-Venezia Giulia) home rule, acknowledging their powers in relation to legislation, administration and finance. These regions became autonomous in order to take into account cultural differences and protect linguistic minorities. Moreover, the government wanted to prevent their secession from Italy after the Second World War.[11]

Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol constitutes a special case. The region is nearly powerless, and the powers granted by the region's statute are mostly exercised by the two autonomous provinces within the region, Trentino and South Tyrol. In this case, the regional institution plays a coordinating role.

Institutions

Each region has an elected parliament, called Consiglio Regionale (regional council), or Assemblea Regionale (regional assembly) in Sicily, and a government called Giunta Regionale (regional junta), headed by the regional president. The latter is directly elected by the citizens of each region, with the exceptions of Aosta Valley and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, where he is chosen by the regional council.

Under the 1995 electoral law, the winning coalition receives an absolute majority of seats on the council. The president chairs the giunta, and nominates or dismisses its members, called assessori. If the directly elected president resigns, new elections are called immediately.

In Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, the regional council is made up of the joint session of the two provincial councils of Trentino and of South Tyrol, and the regional president is one of the two provincial presidents.

Economy of regions and macroregions

FlagNameGDP 2011 million, EUR[12]GDP 2011 per capita 2011, EUR[12]GDP 2011 million PPS, EUR[12]GDP 2011 per capita 2011 PPS, EUR[12]
Abruzzo30,07322,40029,43821,900
Aosta Valley4,32833,7004,23633,000
Apulia69,97417,10068,49616,700
Basilicata10,74418,30010,51717,900
Calabria33,05516,40032,35716,100
Campania93,63516,00091,65815,700
Emilia-Romagna142,60932,100139,59731,400
Friuli-Venezia Giulia36,62829,60035,85529,000
Lazio172,24629,900168,60929,300
Liguria43,99827,20043,06926,700
Lombardy337,16133,900330,04233,200
Marche40,87726,10040,01425,500
Molise6,41420,1006,27819,700
Piedmont125,99728,200123,33627,600
Sardinia33,07519,70032,37719,300
Sicily83,95616,60082,18316,300
Trentino-Alto Adige35,79734,45035,04133,700
Tuscany106,01328,200103,77527,600
Umbria21,53323,70021,07823,200
Veneto149,52730,200146,36929,600
CodeNameGDP 2011 million, EUR[12]GDP 2011 per capita 2011, EUR[12]GDP 2011 million PPS, EUR[12]GDP 2011 per capita 2011 PPS, EUR[12]
ITECentre340,66928,400333,47527,800
ITDNorth-East364,56031,200356,86230,600
ITCNorth-West511,48431,700500,68331,000
ITGIslands117,03117,400114,56017,000
ITFSouth243,89517,200238,74416,800
-Extra-regio2,771-2,712-

The extra-regio territory is made up of parts of the economic territory of a country which cannot be assigned to a single region. It consists of the national air-space, territorial waters and the continental shelf lying in international waters over which the country enjoys exclusive rights, territorial exclaves, deposits of oil, natural gas etc. worked by resident units. Until 2011, the gross value added (GVA) produced in the extra-regio was allocated pro-rata to the inhabited regions of the country concerned. The order of magnitude of the extra-regio GVA depends in particular on the resource endowment in terms of natural gas and oil. In 2011, Member States and the European Commission agreed to give countries the possibility to calculate regional GDP also for the extra-regio. The resulting GDP is available only in absolute values, because the extra-regio territory by definition does not have a resident population.

Other administrative divisions