Neapolitan pizza (Italian: pizza napoletana) is made with tomatoes and mozzarella cheese. It must be made with San Marzano tomatoes, which grow on the volcanic plains to the south of Mount Vesuvius, and mozzarella Campana, the DOP (PDO in English) version of which is made with buffalo mozzarella cheese, 'Mozzarella di Bufala Campana', made with the milk from water buffalo raised in the marshlands of Campania and Lazio in a semi-wild state (this mozzarella is protected with its own European protected designation of origin).
According to the rules proposed by the Associazione Verace Pizza Napoletana, the genuine Neapolitan pizza dough consists of wheat flour (type 0 or 00, or a mixture of both), natural Neapolitan yeast or brewer's yeast, salt and water. For proper results, strong flour with high protein content (as used for bread-making rather than cakes) must be used. The dough must be kneaded by hand or with a low-speed mixer. After the rising process, the dough must be formed by hand without the help of a rolling pin or other machine, and may be no more than 3 millimeters (0.12 in) thick. The pizza must be baked for 60–90 seconds in a 485 °C (905 °F) stone oven with an oak-wood fire. When cooked, it should be soft, elastic, tender and fragrant.
There are different variants, but the original one is called Pizza Margherita, and it follows the essential rules for the ingredients, tomato, sliced mozzarella, basil and extra virgin olive oil, sometimes with a sprinkle of Parmesan Cheese on top. Other variants are: pizza marinara, which is made with tomato, garlic, oregano and extra virgin olive oil and pizza Margherita DOP made with tomato, buffalo mozzarella from Campania, basil and extra virgin olive oil. The pizza napoletana is a Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG) product in Europe. The TSG certification attests that a particular food product objectively possesses specific characteristics which differentiate it from all others in its category, and that its raw materials, composition or method of production have been consistent for a minimum of 30 years.