Martha Graham (May 11, 1894 – April 1, 1991) was an American modern dancer and choreographer whose influence on dance has been compared with the influence of Picasso on modern visual arts, the influence of Stravinsky on music, and the influence of Frank Lloyd Wright on architecture.

She danced and choreographed for over seventy years. Graham was the first dancer to perform at the White House, travel abroad as a cultural ambassador, and receive the highest civilian award of the US: the Presidential Medal of Freedom. In her lifetime she received honors ranging from the Key to the City of Paris to Japan's Imperial Order of the Precious Crown. She said, in the 1994 documentary The Dancer Revealed, "I have spent all my life with dance and being a dancer. It's permitting life to use you in a very intense way. Sometimes it is not pleasant. Sometimes it is fearful. But nevertheless it is inevitable."

Her style, the Graham technique, fundamentally reshaped American dance and is still taught worldwide.

Early life

Graham was born in Allegheny City – later to become part of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania – in 1894. Her father George Graham practiced as what in the Victorian era was known as an "alienist", a practitioner of an early form of psychiatry. The Grahams were strict Presbyterians. Dr. Graham was a third-generation American of Irish descent. Her mother Jane Beers was a second-generation American of Irish, Scots-Irish, and English descent and was also a sixth-generation descendant of Myles Standish. While her parents provided a comfortable environment in her youth, it was not one that encouraged dancing.

The Graham family moved to Santa Barbara, California when Martha was fourteen years old. In 1911, she attended the first dance performance of her life, watching Ruth St. Denis perform at the Mason Opera House in Los Angeles. In the mid-1910s, Martha Graham began her studies at the newly created Denishawn School of Dancing and Related Arts, founded by Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn, at which she would stay until 1923. In 1922, Graham performed one of Shawn's Egyptian dances with Lillian Powell in a short silent film by Hugo Riesenfeld that attempted to synchronize a dance routine on film with a live orchestra and an onscreen conductor.


In 1925, Graham was employed at the Eastman School of Music where Rouben Mamoulian was head of the School of Drama. Among other performances, together Mamoulian and Graham produced a short two-color film called The Flute of Krishna, featuring Eastman students. Mamoulian left Eastman shortly thereafter and Graham chose to leave also, even though she was asked to stay on.

In 1926, the Martha Graham Center of Contemporary Dance was established. On April 18 of the same year Graham debuted her first independent concert, consisting of 18 short solos and trios that she had choreographed. This performance took place at the 48th Street Theatre in Manhattan. She would later say of the concert: "Everything I did was influenced by Denishawn." On November 28, 1926 Martha Graham and others in her company gave a dance recital at the Klaw Theatre in New York City. Around the same time she entered an extended collaboration with Japanese-American pictorialist photographer Soichi Sunami, and over the next five years they together created some of the most iconic images of early modern dance.

One of Graham's students was heiress Bethsabée de Rothschild with whom she became close friends. When Rothschild moved to Israel and established the Batsheva Dance Company in 1965, Graham became the company's first director.

Graham's technique pioneered a principle known as "Contraction and Release" in modern dance, which was derived from a stylized conception of breathing.

New era in dance

In 1936, Graham created Chronicle which brought serious issues to the stage in a dramatic manner. Influenced by the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the Great Depression that followed, and the Spanish Civil War, the dance focused on depression and isolation, reflected in the dark nature of both the set and costumes. That same year, (1936) she declined Hitler's invitation to perform at the International Arts Festival, an event that ran alongside the Olympic Games in Berlin. 1938 became a big year for Graham; the Roosevelts invited Graham to dance at the White House, making her the first dancer to perform there. Also in 1938 Erick Hawkins became the first man to dance with her company. He officially joined her troupe the following year, dancing male lead in a number of Graham's works. They were married in July 1948 after the New York premiere of Night Journey. He left her troupe in 1951 and they divorced in 1954.

On April 1, 1958, the Martha Graham Company premiered the ballet Clytemnestra, based on the ancient Greek legend Clytemnestra and it became a huge success and great accomplishment for Graham. With a score by Egyptian-born composer Halim El-Dabh, this ballet was a large scale work and the only full-length work in Graham's career. Graham choreographed and danced the title role, spending almost the entire duration of the performance on the stage. The ballet was based on the Greek mythology of the same title and tells a tale of Queen Clytemnestra who is married to King Agamemnon. Within the ballet, Clytemnestra has an affair with Aegisthus, while her husband is away battling at the Trojan War. Upon Agamemnon's victorious return he discovers his wife has had an affair, and in revenge Agamemnon offers their daughter, Iphigenia to be sacrificed. Later in the ballet, Clytemnestra is murdered by her other child, her son, Orestes, and the audience experiences Clytemnestra in the afterworld. This ballet was deemed a masterpiece of 20th-century American modernism and was so successful it had a limited engagement showing on Broadway.

Graham collaborated with many composers including Aaron Copland on Appalachian Spring, Louis Horst, Samuel Barber, William Schuman, Carlos Surinach, Norman Dello Joio, and Gian Carlo Menotti. Graham's mother died in Santa Barbara in 1958. Her oldest friend and musical collaborator Louis Horst died in 1964. She said of Horst, "His sympathy and understanding, but primarily his faith, gave me a landscape to move in. Without it, I should certainly have been lost."

Throughout her career Graham resisted requests for her dances to be recorded because she believed that live performances should only exist on stage as they are experienced. There were a few notable exceptions to her dances being taped. For example, she worked on a limited basis with still photographers Imogen Cunningham in the 1930s, and Barbara Morgan in the 1940s. Graham considered Philippe Halsman's photographs of Dark Meadow the most complete photographic record of any of her dances. Halsman also photographed in the 1940s Letter to the World, Cave of the Heart, Night Journey and Every Soul is a Circus. In later years her thinking on the matter evolved and others convinced her to let them recreate some of what was lost. In 1952 Graham allowed taping of her meeting and cultural exchange with famed deafblind author, activist and lecturer Helen Keller, who, after a visit to one of Graham's company rehearsals became a close friend and supporter. Graham was inspired by Keller's joy from and interpretation of dance, utilizing her body to feel the vibration of drums and sound of feet and movement of the air around her.

In her biography Martha, Agnes de Mille cites Graham's last performance as having occurred on the evening of May 25, 1968, in "Time of Snow". But in A Dancer's Life, biographer Russell Freedman lists the year of Graham's final performance as 1969. In her 1991 autobiography, Blood Memory, Graham herself lists her final performance as her 1970 appearance in Cortege of Eagles when she was 76 years old. Graham's choreographies span 181 compositions.

Retirement and later years

In the years that followed her departure from the stage, Graham sank into a deep depression fueled by views from the wings of young dancers performing many of the dances she had choreographed for herself and her former husband. Graham's health declined precipitously as she abused alcohol to numb her pain. In Blood Memory she wrote,

It wasn't until years after I had relinquished a ballet that I could bear to watch someone else dance it. I believe in never looking back, never indulging in nostalgia, or reminiscing. Yet how can you avoid it when you look on stage and see a dancer made up to look as you did thirty years ago, dancing a ballet you created with someone you were then deeply in love with, your husband? I think that is a circle of hell Dante omitted.

[When I stopped dancing] I had lost my will to live. I stayed home alone, ate very little, and drank too much and brooded. My face was ruined, and people say I looked odd, which I agreed with. Finally my system just gave in. I was in the hospital for a long time, much of it in a coma.

After a failed suicide attempt, she was hospitalized. Graham not only survived her hospital stay, but she rallied. In 1972, she quit drinking, returned to her studio, reorganized her company, and went on to choreograph ten new ballets and many revivals. Her last completed ballet was 1990's Maple Leaf Rag.


Graham choreographed until her death in New York City from pneumonia in 1991, aged 96. Just before she became sick with pneumonia, she finished the final draft of her autobiography, Blood Memory, which was published posthumously in the fall of 1991. She was cremated, and her ashes were spread over the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in northern New Mexico.

Influence and legacy

Graham has been sometimes termed the "Picasso of Dance" in that her importance and influence to modern dance can be considered equivalent to what Pablo Picasso was to modern visual arts. Her impact has been also compared to the influence of Stravinsky on music and Frank Lloyd Wright on architecture.

To celebrate what would have been her 117th birthday on May 11, 2011, Google's logo for one day was turned into one dedicated to Graham's life and legacy.

Martha Graham has been said to be the one that brought dance into the 20th century. Due to the work of her assistants, Linda Hodes, Pearl Lang, Diane Gray, Yuriko, and others, much of Graham's work and technique have been preserved. They taped interviews of Graham describing her entire technique and videos of her performances. As Glen Tetley told Agnes de Mille, “The wonderful thing about Martha in her good days was her generosity. So many people stole Martha's unique personal vocabulary, consciously or unconsciously, and performed it in concerts. I have never once heard Martha say, 'So-and-so has used my choreography.'" An entire movement was created by her that revolutionized the dance world and created what is known today as modern dance. Now, dancers all over the world study and perform modern dance. Choreographers and professional dancers look to her for inspiration.

According to Agnes de Mille:

The greatest thing [Graham] ever said to me was in 1943 after the opening of Oklahoma!, when I suddenly had unexpected, flamboyant success for a work I thought was only fairly good, after years of neglect for work I thought was fine. I was bewildered and worried that my entire scale of values was untrustworthy. I talked to Martha. I remember the conversation well. It was in a Schrafft's restaurant over a soda. I confessed that I had a burning desire to be excellent, but no faith that I could be. Martha said to me, very quietly: "There is a vitality, a life force, an energy, a quickening that is translated through you into action, and because there is only one of you in all of time, this expression is unique. And if you block it, it will never exist through any other medium and it will be lost. The world will not have it. It is not your business to determine how good it is nor how valuable nor how it compares with other expressions. It is your business to keep it yours clearly and directly, to keep the channel open. You do not even have to believe in yourself or your work. You have to keep yourself open and aware to the urges that motivate you. Keep the channel open... No artist is pleased. [There is] no satisfaction whatever at any time. There is only a queer divine dissatisfaction, a blessed unrest that keeps us marching and makes us more alive than the others."

Martha Graham Dance Company

The Martha Graham Dance Company is the oldest dance company in America, founded in 1926. It has helped develop many famous dancers and choreographers of the 20th and 21st centuries including Erick Hawkins, Anna Sokolow, Merce Cunningham and Paul Taylor. It continues to perform, including at the Saratoga Performing Arts Center in June 2008, a program consisting of: Ruth St. Denis' The Incense; Graham's reconstruction of Ted Shawn's Serenata Morisca; Graham's Lamentation; Yuriko's reconstruction of Graham's Panorama, performed by dancers from Skidmore College; excerpts from Yuriko's and Graham's reconstruction of the latter's Chronicle from the Julien Bryan film; Graham's Errand into the Maze and Maple Leaf Rag. The company also performed in 2007 at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, with a program consisting of: Appalachian Spring, Embattled Garden, Errand into the Maze, and American Original.

Early dancers

Graham's original female dancers consisted of Bessie Schonberg, Evelyn Sabin, Martha Hill, Gertrude Shurr, Anna Sokolow, Nelle Fisher, Dorothy Bird, Bonnie Bird, Sophie Maslow, May O'Donnell, Jane Dudley, Anita Alvarez, Pearl Lang, and Marjorie G. Mazia. A second group included Yuriko, Ethel Butler, Ethel Winter, Jean Erdman, Patricia Birch, Nina Fonaroff, Matt Turney, Mary Hinkson. The group of men dancers was made up of Erick Hawkins, Merce Cunningham, David Campbell, John Butler, Robert Cohan, Stuart Hodes, Glen Tetley, Bertram Ross, Paul Taylor, Mark Ryder, and William Carter.


In 1957, Graham was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1976 by President Gerald Ford (the First Lady Betty Ford had danced with Graham in her youth). Ford declared her "a national treasure".

Graham was inducted into the National Museum of Dance's Mr. & Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney Hall of Fame in 1987.

In 1998 Graham was posthumously named "Dancer of the Century" by Time magazine, and one of the female "Icons of the Century" by People. The New York Times called her a "brilliant, young dancer".

In 2015 she was posthumously inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame.


This excerpt from John Martin's reviews in The New York Times provides insight on Graham's choreographic style. “Frequently the vividness and intensity of her purpose are so potent that on the rise of the curtain they strike like a blow, and in that moment one must decide whether he is for or against her. She boils down her moods and movements until they are devoid of all extraneous substances and are concentrated to the highest degree.”

1926ChoraleCésar Franck
1926NoveletteRobert Schumann
1927LugubreAlexander Scriabin
1927RevoltArthur Honegger
1927FragilitéAlexander Scriabin
1927ScherzaRobert Schumann
1929Figure of a SaintGeorge Frideric Handel
1929ResurrectionTibor Harsányi
1929AdolescencePaul Hindemith
1929DanzaDarius Milhaud
1929Vision of the ApocalypseHermann Reutter
1929InsinceritiesSerge Prokofiev
1929Moment RusticaFrancis Poulenc
1929Hereticfrom folkloreOld Breton song, Tetus Breton, as arranged by Charles de Sivry
1930LamentationZoltán KodálySets by Isamu Noguchi
1930HarlequinadeErnst TochCostumes by Graham
1931Primitive MysteriesLouis Horst
1931BacchanaleWallingford Riegger
1931DolorosaHeitor Villa-Lobos
1933Romeo and JulietPaul NordoffDance sequences for a Katharine Cornell production
1935PraeludiumPaul NordoffCostumes by Graham (1935), by Edythe Gilfond (1938)
1935FrontierLouis HorstSets by Isamu Noguchi
1935CourseGeorge Antheil
1936Steps in the StreetWallingford RieggerPart of Chronicle
1936ChronicleWallingford RieggerLighting by Jean Rosenthal
1936HorizonsLouis HorstSets by Alexander Calder
1936SalutationLehman Engel
1937Deep SongHenry Cowell
1937Opening DanceNorman Lloyd
1937Immediate TragedyHenry Cowell
1937American LyricAlex NorthCostumes by Edythe Gilfond
1938American DocumentRay GreenSets by Arch Lauterer, costumes by Edythe Gilfond
1939ColumbiadLouis HorstSets by Philip Stapp, costumes by Edythe Gilfond
1939Every Soul is a CircusPaul NordoffSets by Philip Stapp, costumes by Edythe Gilfond
1940El PenitenteLouis HorstOriginal sets by Arch Lauterer, costumes by Edythe Gilfond, sets later redesigned by Isamu Noguchi
1940Letter to the WorldHunter JohnsonSets by Arch Lauterer, costumes by Edythe Gilfond
1941Punch and the JudyRobert McBrideSets by Arch Lauterer, costumes by Charlotte Trowbridge, text by Edward Gordon Craig
1942Land Be BrightArthur KreutzSets and costumes by Charlotte Trowbridge
1943Deaths and EntrancesHunter JohnsonSets by Arch Lauterer, costumes by Edythe Gilfond (1943) and by Oscar de la Renta (2005)
1943Salem ShorePaul NordoffSets by Arch Lauterer, costumes by Edythe Gilfond
1944Appalachian SpringAaron CoplandSets by Isamu Noguchi
1944Imagined WingDarius MilhaudSets by Isamu Noguchi, costumes by Edythe Gilfond
1944HérodiadePaul HindemithSets by Isamu Noguchi
1946Dark MeadowCarlos ChávezSets by Isamu Noguchi, costumes by Edythe Gilfond, and lighting by Jean Rosenthal.
1946Cave of the HeartSamuel BarberSets by Isamu Noguchi, costumes by Edythe Gilfond, and lighting by Jean Rosenthal.
1947Errand into the MazeGian Carlo MenottiSets by Isamu Noguchi, lighting by Jean Rosenthal
1947Night JourneyWilliam SchumanSets by Isamu Noguchi
1948Diversion of AngelsNorman Dello JoioSets by Isamu Noguchi (eliminated after the first performance)
1950JudithWilliam SchumanSets by Isamu Noguchi, lighting by Jean Rosenthal
1951The Triumph of St. JoanNorman Dello Joio
1954Ardent SongAlan Hovhaness
1955Seraphic DialogueNorman Dello JoioSets by Isamu Noguchi
1958ClytemnestraHalim El-DabhSets by Isamu Noguchi, costumes by Graham and Helen McGehee
1958Embattled GardenCarlos SurinachSets by Isamu Noguchi
1959EpisodesAnton WebernCommissioned by New York City Ballet
1960Acrobats of GodCarlos Surinach
1960AlcestisVivian Fine
1961Visionary RecitalRobert StarerRevised as Samson Agonistes in 1962
1961One More Gaudy NightHalim El-Dabh
1962PhaedraRobert StarerSets by Isamu Noguchi
1962A Look at LightningHalim El-Dabh
1962Secular GamesRobert Starer
1962Legend of JudithMordecai Seter
1963CirceAlan HovhanessSets by Isamu Noguchi
1965The Witch of EndorWilliam Schuman
1967Cortege of EaglesEugene LesterSets by Isamu Noguchi
1968A Time of SnowNorman Dello Joio
1968Plain of PrayerEugene Lester
1968The Lady of the House of SleepRobert Starer
1969The Archaic HoursEugene Lester
1973Mendicants of EveningDavid G. WalkerRevised as Chronique in 1974
1973Myth of a VoyageAlan Hovhaness
1974Holy JungleRobert Starer
1974Jacob's DreamMordecai Seter
1975LuciferHalim El-Dabh
1975AdorationsMateo Albéniz
Domenico Cimarosa
John Dowland
Girolamo Frescobaldi
1975Point of CrossingMordecai Seter
1975The Scarlet LetterHunter Johnson
1977O Thou Desire Who Art About to SingMeyer Kupferman
1977ShadowsGian Carlo Menotti
1978The Owl and the PussycatCarlos Surinach
1978EcuatorialEdgard Varèse
1978Flute of PanTraditional music.
1978 or 1979FrescoesSamuel Barber
1979EpisodesAnton Webernreconstructed and reworked
1980JudithEdgard Varèse
1981Acts of LightCarl NielsenCostumes by Halston
1982Dances of the Golden HallAndrzej Panufnik
1982Andromanche's LamentSamuel Barber
1983Phaedra's DreamGeorge Crumb
1984The Rite of SpringIgor Stravinsky
1985SongRomanian folk musicplayed on the pan flute by Gheorghe Zamfir with Marcel Cellier on the organ
1986Temptations of the MoonBéla Bartók
1986Tangled NightKlaus Egge
1987PerséphoneIgor Stravinsky
1988Night ChantR. Carlos Nakai
1990Maple Leaf RagScott Joplincostumes by Calvin Klein, lighting by David Finley
1991The Eyes of the Goddess (unfinished)Carlos SurinachSets by Marisol