Mark T. Keane (Irish: Marcus Ó Cathain, born 3 July 1961, Dublin, Ireland) is a cognitive scientist and author of several books on human cognition, including Cognitive Psychology: A Student's Handbook (7 editions, with Michael Eysenck), Advances in the Psychology of Thinking (1992, with Ken Gilhooly), Novice Programming Environments (1992, with Marc Eisenstadt and Tim Rajan), Advances in Case-Based Reasoning (1995, with J-P Haton and Michel Manago).

Keane has been Chair of Computer Science at University College Dublin since 1997. In 2006, he was seconded to the newly established Science Foundation Ireland as Director of ICT, responsible for oversight on a $700m research investment. He advised the Irish Government on its 3.7B euro Strategy for Science, Technology & Innovation (SSTI). From 2006-2007, he was Director General of Science Foundation Ireland before returning to University College Dublin where he was appointed VP of Innovation & Partnerships (2007-2009).

Keane's research has been split between Cognitive Science and Computer Science. His Cognitive Science research has been in Analogy, Metaphor, Conceptual combination and Similarity (psychology). His Computer Science research has been in Natural Language Processing, Machine Learning, Case-based reasoning and text analytics. More recently, he has been a PI in the Science Foundation Ireland funded Insight Centre for Data Analytics working on Digital journalism and Digital Humanities.