Jalandhar (Punjabi Gurmukhi: ਜਲੰਧਰ), formerly Jullundur, is a city in the northwestern India state of Punjab.

The oldest city in Punjab and one of the oldest in the country, Jalandhar has seen rapid urbanisation and developed into a highly industrialised centre of commercial activity in recent years. Jalandhar was the capital of Punjab from India's independence (1947) until Chandigarh was built in 1953. On the Grand Trunk Road, it is a major rail and road junction and is 144 km northwest of the state capital, Chandigarh. The city was known as Jullundur in British India.

History

The history of Jalandhar District comprises three periods — ancient, medieval and modern.

In ancient time, the district comprised the whole of the Upper Doabas from Ravi River to Sutlej River. The city[5] is named after Jalandhar, a demon king, who is mentioned in the Puranas and Mahabharta. According to another legend, Jalandhar was the capital of the kingdom of Lava (Ramayana), son of Rama. According to another version Jalandhar is said to have derived its name from the vernacular term `Jalandhar' means area inside the water, i.e., tract lying between the two rivers Satluj and Beas. Another name was Trigartta which was ruled by the Katoch Dynasty, as it was waters by three rivers, Satluj, Beas and Ravi. The whole of Punjab and the area of present Jalandhar District was part of the Indus Valley Civilization. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro are the sites where remains of the Indus Valley Civilization have been found extensively. The archaeological explorations made during recent years have pushed the ancient times of Jalandhar District of Harappa period.

The modern history of Jalandhar District states that Khilafat Movement was started in the district in early 1920 to bring pressure upon British rulers to change their policy towards Turkey. Mahatma Gandhi extended sympathy and support to this movement. Jalandhar District was declared 'Proclaimed Area' under the Seditious Meetings Act. After the independence of the country, however, the district was affected by communal riots and exodus of minority communities from both sides of the border, consequent upon the partition of the country.

Geography

The city has a humid subtropical climate with cool winters and hot summers. Summers last from April to June and winters from November to February. Temperatures in the summer vary from average highs of around 48 °C (118 °F) to average lows of around 25 °C (77 °F). Winter temperatures have highs of 19 °C (66 °F) to lows of −7 °C (19 °F). The climate is dry on the whole, except during the brief southwest monsoon season during July and August. The average annual rainfall is about 70 cm.

Climate data for Jalandhar
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)19.4
(66.9)
21.6
(70.9)
26.0
(78.8)
34.5
(94.1)
39.4
(102.9)
43.6
(110.5)
34.1
(93.4)
33.1
(91.6)
32.6
(90.7)
31.5
(88.7)
27.2
(81)
22.3
(72.1)
30.44
(86.8)
Average low °C (°F)6.2
(43.2)
8.6
(47.5)
13.2
(55.8)
19.0
(66.2)
23.8
(74.8)
25.6
(78.1)
24.7
(76.5)
25.8
(78.4)
21.8
(71.2)
18.3
(64.9)
12.1
(53.8)
7.2
(45)
17.19
(62.95)
Average precipitation mm (inches)10.7
(0.421)
16.7
(0.657)
32.8
(1.291)
15.2
(0.598)
20.4
(0.803)
69.7
(2.744)
155.2
(6.11)
183.6
(7.228)
60.0
(2.362)
1.5
(0.059)
6
(0.24)
15
(0.59)
586.8
(23.103)
Source: [6]

Demographics

As per provisional data of 2011 census Jalandhar had a population of 873,725, of which 463,975 were male and 409,750 female. The literacy rate was 85.46 per cent.[7]

Religion in Jalandhar[8]
ReligionPercent
Hinduism
  
63.56%
Sikhism
  
32.75%
Islam
  
1.38%
Christianity
  
1.19%
Others
  
1.22%

Economy

Upmarket localities include Civil lines, Dilbagh Nagar Extension, Mota Singh Nagar, Green Park, Green Model Town, Model Town, Jawahar Nagar, Gupta Colony, Guru Teg Bahadur Nagar, Urban Estate Phase I & II, New Jawahar Nagar, Defence Colony, Adarsh nagar, Adampur Doaba, J.P. Nagar, Grover Colony, Central Town etc.

Jalandhar provides goods like glass and furniture to neighbouring cities and is a hub of sports goods manufacture for international market.

Transport

By air

The nearest airport is Pathankot Airport at Pathankot, about 90 km and Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport at Amritsar, about 75 km (47 mi) northwest of Jalandhar. It is connected to other parts of the country by regular flights. Several airlines operate flights from abroad, including Birmingham, Dubai and Doha. The airport handles as many as 48 flights every week up from the occasional, intermittent ones some years ago.

By rail

Jalandhar City railway station is well connected to other parts of the country. Jalandhar city is a major station of the Amritsar-Delhi rail link. It is very well connected to capital Delhi by daily trains like Shatabdi Express, Intercity Express and other mail/superfast express. Direct train service is available for other major cities like Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Patna, Guwahati, Pune, Haridwar, Varanasi, Jaipur and Jammu Tawi. Some prestigious trains that halt in Jalandhar City railway station are Howrah Mail, Golden Temple Mail (Frontier Mail), New-Delhi Amritsar Shatabdi Express, Paschim Express. Now many trains of Jammu route are extend up to Mata Vaishno Devi-Katra.

By road

There is a large network of bus services of Punjab, Himachal, Delhi, Haryana, Pepsu, Chandigarh, U.P., Jammu & Kashmir, Rajasthan State Roadways, apart from private operators. Jalandhar has many good road services.

Commerce

Shopping & Real Estate

Shopping malls in Jalandhar include:

  • Viva Collage Mall
  • MBD Neopollis
  • The Galleria
  • Curo High Street
  • Sarb Multiplex
  • Splendor Shagun
  • PPR Mall
  • Naaz Shopping Center
  • The Metropolitan
  • City Square
  • Vasal Tower
  • LPU Shoping Mall
  • Lovely Mart
  • Lovely Bakers
  • One Stop Shope
  • Jyoti Mall
  • Chunmun Mall
  • The Parikrama
  • The City Square
  • The Kla Niketan
  • Taneja & Co Property Linkers

Religious places

  • Gurduwara Thra Sahib (Hazara Village)
  • Gurudwara Singh Sabha (Jalandhar Cantt)
  • Mayaan da Gurudwara (Jalandhar Cantt)
  • Gurudwara Kakipind Rama mandi
  • Devi Talab Mandir
  • Imam Nasir Mausoleum and Jamma Masjid
  • Shiv Mandir
  • Shiv Bari Mandir
  • Tulsi Mandir
  • Gurdwara Chhevin Pathshahi
  • Gurudwara Singh Sabha-Model Town
  • Gurudwara Talhan Sahib
  • St Mary's Cathedral Church (Jalandhar Cantt)
  • Gurudwara Nauwi Patshahi
  • Church of North India (CNI) Mission Compound
  • Gurdwara Panj Tirth Sahib (Jandu Singha)
  • Gurudwara Baba Shaheed Nihal Singh Ji Talhan
  • Sankat Mochan Hanuman Mandir (phillar tehsil)
  • Singh Sabha Gurudwara Sahib (chuharwali)
  • shri Guru Ravidass Gurudwara (chuharwali)

Leisure

  • Pushpa Gujral Science City
  • Fun City
  • Shaheed-E-Azam Sardar Bhagat Museum Khatkar Kalan
  • Company Bagh
  • Niku Park, Model Town
  • Wonder Land[9]
  • Adarsh Nagar Park
  • PVR, BMC chowk

Media

Doordarshan Kendra, Jalandhar is an Indian television station in Jalandhar, owned and operated by state-owned Doordarshan, the television network of Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India).[10] It was established in 1979 and produces and broadcasts the 24-hour Punjabi language TV channel, DD Punjabi, which was launched in 1998 and covers most of the state of Punjab, India.

The city is the region's headquarters for newspapers, national television and radio stations. These include Daily Ajit, Jagbani, Punjab Kesari, Dainik Jagran, Hindustan Times, The Tribune, Dainik Bhaskar, Hind Samachar, etc.[2][2][2][2]

State-owned All India Radio has a local station in Jalandhar that transmits programs of mass interest. FM local radio stations include:

Healthcare

According to the Municipal Corporation of Jalandhar, there are over 420 hospitals in Jalandhar. The city claims to have highest number of hospitals in Asia.

Among them are

  • PIMS Hospital
  • Guru Nanak Mission Hospital
  • Meena Gupta hospital
  • Patel Hospital
  • Jammu Hospital
  • Joshi Hospital
  • Bhutani Hospital
  • Sharanjeet Hospital
  • Ghai Hospital
  • Civil Hospital
  • Tagore Hospital
  • Tyagmurti Hospital
  • Sigma Hospital
  • Sikka Hospital
  • Karan Hospital
  • Johal hospital

Sports

Cricket

Cricket is very popular in grounds and streets of the city. There is an international-standard stadium at Burlton Park. The Indian cricket team played a Test Match against the Pakistan cricket team on this ground on 24 September 1983.

Kabaddi

Major Kabaddi matches are usually held at Guru Gobind Singh Stadium.

Guru Gobind Singh Stadium

Guru Gobind Singh Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Jalandhar. It is usually used mostly for football matches and is the home stadium of JCT Mills Football Club. People can be seen jogging, playing soccer, weight-lifting, etc. in the stadium most of the time. The Punjab government has started new projects at the stadium.

Surjit Hockey Stadium

Surjeet Hockey Stadium is a field hockey stadium in Jalandhar, Punjab, India. It is named after Jalandhar-born Olympian Surjit Singh. This stadium is home of the franchise Sher-e-Punjab of the World Series Hockey.

Sports college

There is a Government Sports College in the city and it is a focus for many of the National Sports Councils. In this college, many sports are played like cricket, hockey, swimming, volleyball, basketball, etc.

Education

Schools

Colleges

Higher education institutions include:

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Universities

Jalandhar Cantonment

Notable people

NameOccupation
Yash ChopraProducer/Director[2]
Dr. Ranbir Singh KanwarSugarcane Researcher, Director of Research (Agriculture) PAU, Director of Research Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University[2]
Vanya MishraWinner of Miss India Femina 2012
Lawrence DurrellExpatriate British novelist, poet, dramatist, and travel writer[2]
Sunil DuttActor[2]
Kundan Lal SaigalActor/Singer[2]
Amrish PuriActor[3]
Jazzy BSinger
Sukhwinder PanchhiSinger
Apache IndianSinger
Sarbjit CheemaSinger
Kanth KalerSinger
Master SaleemSinger
Hans Raj HansSinger
Jagjit SinghSinger
Jasbir JassiSinger
Bahadur SinghIndian former shot putter who won gold medal
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq4th Chief Martial Law Administrator and the sixth President of Pakistan
Diwan Bhai Abdul HamidRevenue and Chief Minister of Kapurthala State
Hafeez JullundhriWriter and poet
Baba Kashmira SinghHead of Sidhant Sant Samaj or Gurbani
Paul NischalNRI President, first Indian candidate for the British Political Party
Col. Balbir Singh KullarHockey Player
Varinder Singh GhumanBodybuilder, Wrestler and Punjabi Film Actor
Ajit Pal SinghHockey Player
Surjit SinghHockey Player
Pargat SinghHockey Player
Inder Kumar GujralFormer Prime Minister of India
Harbhajan SinghCricketer
Wasim SajjadTwo-time Acting President of Pakistan, Ex Chairman of Senate
Sheikh Anwarul HaqFormer Chief Jistice
Mian Mohammed SharifSurveyor General
Lala AmarnathCricketer
Lala Jagat NarainFreedom fighter and founder of Punjab Kesri
Rannvijay SinghIndian Actor who acts in Bollywood and Punjabi Films and also a VJ on MTV India
Basheer Hussain NajafiOne of the six Grand Ayatollahs
Sardar Swaran SinghPolitician
Udham Singh (field hockey)Hockey Player
Darshan Singh (field hockey)Hockey Player
Salma MumtazActress
Ashwini Kumar ChopraJournalist, Politician (MP-Karnal)
Kartar Singh DuggalWriter
Kulwant Singh VirkWriter
Ishar Singh (poet)Poet
Sadhu Singh HamdardFreedom fighter and Writer
Prem ParkashWriter
Ajit SainiWriter and Army General
HasratWriter
Gurbachan Singh TalibWriter
Gurdial SinghWriter and novelist
Chaudhry Muhammad AliFormer Prime Minister of Pakistan
Swami ShraddhanandIndian educationist and an Arya Samaj missionary
Wazir AliCricketer
R. Paul DhillonIndo-Canadian journalist
Arun ShouriePolitician, author and journalist
Agha SadiqWriter and poet
Dharam Singh UppalAthlete
Balbir Singh, Sr.Hockey Player
Mandeep SinghCricketer
VimiActress
Ranvir ShoreyActor
Sugandha MishraSinger,Anchor,Comedian
Surbhi JyotiActress
General Zia ul Haqx Chief of army Staff and president of Pakistan
Garry SandhuSinger
Diljit DosanjhSinger
Vijay SamplaState Minister in Union Govt
Bhagat Chunni LalMinister in Punjab Govt
Ram KapoorActor
Mohinder Singh KaypeePolitician
Sardar Buta SinghEx-Home Minister of India