In 1180, near the end of the Heian period, Emperor Antoku, Taira no Kiyomori, and the Imperial court moved briefly to Fukuhara, in what is now the city of Kobe. There the capital remained for five months.
Southern Hyōgo Prefecture was severely devastated by the 6.9 Mw Great Hanshin earthquake of 1995, which destroyed major parts of Kobe and Awaji, as well as Takarazuka and neighboring Osaka Prefecture, killing nearly 6,500 people.
Hyōgo has coastlines on two seas: to the north, the Sea of Japan, to the south, the Seto Inland Sea. On Awaji Island, Hyōgo borders the Pacific Ocean coastline in the Kii Channel. The northern portion is sparsely populated, except for the city of Toyooka, and the central highlands are only populated by tiny villages. Most of Hyōgo's population lives on the southern coast, which is part of the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto metropolitan area. Awaji is an island that separates the Inland Sea and Osaka Bay, lying between Honshu and Shikoku.
Summertime weather throughout Hyōgo is hot and humid. As for winter conditions in Hyōgo, the north of Hyōgo tends to receive abundant snow, whilst the south receives only the occasional flurry.
As of March 31, 2008, 20% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Sanin Kaigan and Setonaikai National Parks; Hyōnosen-Ushiroyama-Nagisan Quasi-National Park ; and Asago Gunzan, Harima Chūbu Kyūryō, Inagawa Keikoku, Izushi-Itoi, Kasagatayama-Sengamine, Kiyomizu-Tōjōko-Tachikui, Onzui-Chikusa, Seiban Kyūryō, Seppiko-Mineyama, Tajima Sangaku, and Taki Renzan Prefectural Natural Parks. 
Twenty-nine cities are located in Hyōgo Prefecture:
- Kobe is where the Hyogo Prefectural Government sits.
These are the towns in each district:
Two major artificial islands are located Hyōgo Prefecture:
The city of Akō and the only town in Akō District ( Kamigōri), were scheduled to merge and the city would still retain the name Akō. Akō District would be defunct if the merger was successful.  However, the merger hasn't taken place.
As in all prefectures nationwide, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries play a big role in the economy of Hyogo Prefecture  . Hyōgo Prefecture also has an IT industry, many heavy industries, metal and medical, Kobe Port being one of the largest ports in Japan. Kobe Port also hosts one of the worlds-fasted-supercomputers, and Hyogo Prefecture passed laws to keep Kobe Port free of Nuclear Weapons (a Nuclear-free zone) since the year 1975  .
Hyōgo is a part of the Hanshin Industrial Region. There are two research institute of Riken, natural sciences research institute in Japan, in Kobe and Harima. It has " SPring-8 ",a synchrotron radiation facility in Harima.
National Treasures of Japan
- Himeji Castle in Himeji ( UNESCO World Heritage Site)
- Jōdo-ji in Ono
- Ichijō-ji in Kasai
- Kakurin-ji in Kakogawa
- Taisan-ji in Kobe
- Chōkō-ji in Katō
Important Preservation Districts for Groups of Historic Buildings in Japan
- Hyōgo Prefectural Museum of Art in Nada Ward, Kobe.
- Kobe City Museum in Chuo Ward, Kobe.
- Kobe Maritime Museum in Chuo Ward, Kobe.
- Himeji City Museum of Art in Himeji.
- Asago Art Village in Asago.
- Ashiya City Museum of Art & History in Ashiya.
- Sonoda Women's University
- St. Thomas University (Eichi University)
- Kwansei Gakuin University (Sanda Campus)
- Kobe University
- Kobe University of Commerce
- Kobe Gakuin University
- Kobe City University of Foreign Studies
- Kobe Women's University
- Kobe Shukugawa Gakuin University
- Konan University
- University of Marketing and Distribution Sciences
- University of Hyogo
There are 163 public and 52 private high schools within Hyogo prefecture. Of the public high schools, some are administered by the Hyogo prefectural government, whilst the others are administered by local municipalities.
The sports teams listed below are based in Hyōgo.
- Hyogo Storks ( Kobe)
Festival and events
- Miyuki Street New Year's midnight traditional sale, Himeji
- Nishinomiya Shrine's Ebisu Festival in January
- Yanagihara Ebisu Festival in January, Kobe
- Tada Shrine's Genji Festival in April, Kawanishi
- Kobe Festival and Parade in May
- Aioi Peron Festival in May
- Himeji Yukata Festival in June
- Dekansho Bon Dancing Festival in August, Sasayama
- Nada Fighting Festival, Himeji
- Kobe Luminarie in December
- Ako Chushingura Parade
- JR West
- Hankyu Railway
- Nose Railway
- Myoken Line
- Nissei Line
- Hokushin Kyūkō Electric Railway
- Kobe Municipal Subway
- Hojo Railway (Ao-Hojo)
- Hanshin Railway
- Sanyo Railway
- Chizu Express
- Kitakinki Tango Railway
- Chūgoku Expressway
- San'yō Expressway
- Kobe-Awaji-Naruto Expressway
- Meishin Expressway
- Maizuru-Wakasa Expressway
- Bantan Expressway
- Second Shinmei road
- Hanshin Expressway
- Route 2
- Route 9
- Route 28
- Route 29
- Route 43
- Route 171
- Route 173
- Route 174 (Sannomiya-Kobe Port)
- Route 175
- Route 176
- Route 178
- Route 179
- Route 250
- Route 312
- Route 372
- Route 373
- Route 426
- Route 427
- Route 428
- Route 429
- Route 436
- Route 477
- Route 482
- Route 483
- Kobe Port – Mainly international container hub port
- Akashi Port
- Shikama Port – Mainly Shōdo Island route ferry
- Ume Aoki, manga artist
- Mana Ashida, child actress from Nishinomiya
- Koichi Domoto, singer of KinKi Kids
- Heath, musician, singer-songwriter and bassist of X Japan is from Amagasaki
- Miracle Hikaru, comedian and impersonator is from Toyooka
- Kanō Jigorō, founder of the martial art Judo
- Jun, musician, singer-songwriter and guitarist of Phantasmagoria is from Kobe
- Shinji Kagawa, footballer from Kobe
- Tomoya Kanki, drummer of One Ok Rock
- Tomomi Ogawa, bassist of Scandal
- Kaoru, guitarist of Dir En Grey
- Ayaka Kimura, actress, former singer of Coconuts Musume is from Kobe
- Keiko Kitagawa, actress from Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon and Buzzer Beat was born in Kobe
- Miho Komatsu, singer and songwriter from Kobe
- Yūji Kuroiwa, politician from Kobe, current governor of Kanagawa Prefecture
- Kamui Kobayashi, former Sauber and Toyota Racing driver from Amagasaki
- Chisa Maekawa, singer of Girl Next Door
- Kiyomatsu Matsubara, ichthyologist, herpetologist and marine biologist
- Aya Matsuura, singer is from Himeji
- Mina Myoui - American born Japanese singer of Korean group Twice. Raised in Nishinomiya
- Miyavi, musician, although born in Konohana-ku, Osaka grew up in Kawanishi
- Masamune Shirow, manga artist was born in Kobe
- So Taguchi, outfielder for the Chicago Cubs
- Masahiro Tanaka, pitcher for the New York Yankees
- Nagaru Tanigawa, creator of the Haruhi Suzumiya series was born in Kinki
- Fumito Ueda, video game creator of Ico , Shadow of the Colossus , and The Last Guardian
- Juri Ueno, Japanese Academy Award -winning actress best known for her performances in Swing Girls and the live-action adaptation of Nodame Cantabile , is from Kakogawa
- Shota Yasuda, guitarist of Kanjani Eight is from Amagasaki
- Piko, musician, Vocaloid singer born in Kobe, Hyōgo
Sister state agreement with Western Australia
In 1981, a sister state agreement was drawn up between Hyogo and the state of Western Australia in Australia.  To commemorate the 10th anniversary of this agreement in 1992, the Hyogo Prefectural Government Cultural Centre was established in Perth.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Hyōgo prefecture" in , p. 363, at Google Books ; "Kansai" in , p. 477, at Google Books.
- Nussbaum, "Kobe" in , p. 537, at Google Books.
- Nussbaum, "Provinces and prefectures" in , p. 780, at Google Books.
- (PDF) . Ministry of the Environment . Retrieved 4 February 2012 .
- 2006-07-08 at the Wayback Machine.
- . Archived from on 2015-05-30.