The Dark Enlightenment, neoreactionary movement, or simply neoreaction (abbreviated NRx by proponents), is an anti-democratic and reactionary movement that broadly rejects egalitarianism and Whig historiography.[2][4] The movement favours a return to older societal constructs and forms of government, including support for monarchism and traditional gender roles, coupled with a libertarian or otherwise right-wing or conservative approach to economics.[4][5] Some critics have labelled the movement as "neo-fascist".[6][8]

A 2013 TechCrunch article describes the "Neoreactionary" "community of bloggers" as a term applied to, and at times a self-description of, an informal group of online political theorists who have been active after the 2000s.[2]


The term "Dark Enlightenment" was coined by author and philosopher Nick Land in his essay of the same name, as a satirical play on words for the knowledge supposedly gained from the Enlightenment and lost throughout the Dark Ages.[4][6][2][5][9] His essay starts "Neo-reactionaries head for the exit."[10]

The phrase "neo-reactionary" was used in adjectival form by Curtis Yarvin's blog written under the name "Mencius Moldbug" in 2008[11][12] (George Orwell used it in a different context in 1943).[13] Moldbug had originally called his ideology "formalism",[14] but Arnold Kling used the term "The Neo-Reactionaries" in July 2010 to describe Moldbug and fellows[15] and the term was adopted by the subculture.[2]