The Dark Enlightenment, neoreactionary movement, or simply neoreaction (abbreviated NRx by proponents), is an anti-democratic and reactionary movement that broadly rejects egalitarianism and Whig historiography. The movement favours a return to older societal constructs and forms of government, including support for monarchism and traditional gender roles, coupled with a libertarian or otherwise right-wing or conservative approach to economics. Some critics have labelled the movement as "neo-fascist".
A 2013 TechCrunch article describes the "Neoreactionary" "community of bloggers" as a term applied to, and at times a self-description of, an informal group of online political theorists who have been active after the 2000s.
The term "Dark Enlightenment" was coined by author and philosopher Nick Land in his essay of the same name, as a satirical play on words for the knowledge supposedly gained from the Enlightenment and lost throughout the Dark Ages. His essay starts "Neo-reactionaries head for the exit."
The phrase "neo-reactionary" was used in adjectival form by Curtis Yarvin's blog written under the name "Mencius Moldbug" in 2008 (George Orwell used it in a different context in 1943). Moldbug had originally called his ideology "formalism", but Arnold Kling used the term "The Neo-Reactionaries" in July 2010 to describe Moldbug and fellows and the term was adopted by the subculture.