Coleman attended J. J. Pearce High School in Richardson, Texas, where he was a three-sport star in football, basketball and track. In football, he excelled as a rusher, receiver and returner under head coach Randy Robertson and was named first-team 2011 All-Area by The Dallas Morning News SportsDay (as WR/RB/QB) and earned 2011 first-team Class 4A All-State and District 10-4A MVP honors as a wide receiver. As a sophomore, he totaled 707 yards and 10 touchdowns on 91 rushes as well as 19 receptions for 229 yards and one more score, earning second-team All-District 10-4A honors. He had 69 receptions for 1,003 yards and 11 touchdowns as well as 97 carries for 426 yards and 13 touchdowns as junior in 2010; he also made two interceptions at cornerback en route to 2010 All-District 10-4A honors. As a senior in 2011, he totaled 69 receptions for 932 yards and 11 touchdowns, 567 yards and 15 touchdowns on 84 rushes and threw for 106 yards on 5-of-6 passing. In his final three seasons, Coleman amassed 3,864 all-purpose yards and 61 touchdowns. Following his senior season, he was selected to play for the 2012 U.S. Under-19 National Football Team in the February International Bowl (formerly known as Team USA vs. The World).
Coleman also participated on the track & field team, where he was a standout sprinter and jumper. As a junior in 2011, he placed second at the District 10-4A meet in the triple jump with a leap of 13.70 meters (44'11.5").  He posted a personal-best time of 10.83 seconds in the 100-meter dash at the 48th Annual Jesuit-Sheaner Relays, placing sixth in the finals.  At the Region II-4A meet, he recorded a career-best time of 21.76 seconds in the 200-meter dash en route to an 8th-place finish; he was also a finalist in the jumping events, finishing second in the long jump (6.99m or 22'11") and third in the high jump (2.0m or 6'6.75"), while also running the third leg on the 4 × 100 m relay squad, helping them earn a fourth-place finish with a time of 41.97 seconds.  Before his senior year, he ran the fastest 40-yard dash (4.32 seconds) at a SPARQ Combine in Oregon, which featured some of the nation's top recruits. As senior in 2012, he finished eighth at Texas UIL 3A state meet in the high jump with a 1.93m (6'4") mark. 
After redshirting in 2012, Coleman started 10 of 13 games as a redshirt freshman in 2013. For the season, he had 35 receptions for 527 yards and two touchdowns. Coleman missed the first three games of his sophomore season due to a hamstring injury. In his first game back he had 12 receptions for 154 yards and a touchdown.  Overall, he appeared in 10 games and recorded 64 receptions for 1,119 yards and 11 touchdowns.  During the second game of his junior year in 2015, Coleman set the school record with four touchdown receptions in a single game.   Coleman finished the year with 74 catches, 1,363 yards an 18.4 yard average per catch, and 20 touchdowns.  Coleman capped off the year by winning the 2015 Fred Biletnikoff Award for the nation's best wide receiver.  On December 23, 2015, Coleman underwent a sports hernia surgery, causing him to miss the Russell Athletic Bowl. A few days following his surgery, he decided to forgo his senior year and enter the 2016 NFL Draft.
|Ht||Wt||Arm length||Hand size||40‑yd dash||10-yd split||20-yd split||20‑ss||3‑cone||Vert jump||Broad||BP|
| 5 ft 11 in |
| 194 lb |
| 30 1 ⁄ 4 in |
| 9 in |
|4.39 s||1.51 s||2.47 s|| 40.5 in |
| 11 ft 3 in |
|All values from NFL Combine  /Baylor's Pro Day |
Coleman was drafted 15th overall by the Cleveland Browns in the 2016 NFL Draft.  On May 13, 2016, he signed a four-year, $11.65 million contract.  Coleman did not play for most of the preseason due to injury, but the Browns expected to start him in the first several games of the season due to the suspension  of starting wide receiver Josh Gordon. 
In his first regular season game on September 11, 2016, Coleman recorded two receptions for 69 yards. In Week 2 against the Baltimore Ravens, Coleman made five receptions for 104 receiving yards and two touchdowns.  Coleman broke his hand during practice on September 21, and was ruled out 4–6 weeks.
In Week 1 of the 2017 season, against the Pittsburgh Steelers, Coleman caught the first career touchdown pass from quarterback DeShone Kizer. He finished the game with five receptions for 53 yards.  In Week 2 against the Baltimore Ravens, Coleman suffered another broken hand, the same hand that hindered him in the 2016 season. He had surgery on the hand on September 18, 2017 and was ruled out 6-8 weeks.  He was placed on injured reserve the next day.  He was activated off injured reserve to the active roster on November 16, 2017.