A clear-channel station is an AM radio station in North America that has the highest protection from interference from additional stations, particularly concerning night-time skywave propagation. The system exists to ensure the existence of cross-country or cross-continent radio service, and is enforced through a series of treaties and statutory laws. Now known as Class A stations after 1982, they're occasionally still referred to by their former classifications of Class I-A (the highest classification), Class I-B (the next highest class), or Class I-N (for stations in Alaska too far away to cause interference to the primary clear-channel stations in the lower 48 states). The term "clear channel" is used most most often in the context of North America and the Caribbean, where the concept originated.

Since 1941, these stations have been required to maintain at least 10,000 watts of power to retain their status. Nearly all these stations in the United States, Canada and The Bahamas broadcast at 50,000 watts, with several clear channel stations in Mexico going as high as 150,000 watts and XEW in Mexico City operating at 250,000 watts. (Cuba was originally included in the plan and had several stations given clear-channel status, but Cuba stopped participating after 1959.)


Sixty medium wave frequencies were set aside in 1941 under the North American Radio Broadcasting Agreement (NARBA) for nighttime use by only one, two or three specific AM stations, covering a wide area via skywave propagation. These frequencies were known as the "clear channels," and the stations on them are thus clear-channel stations. NARBA set aside 37 Class I-A frequencies and 27 Class I-B frequencies. The Class I-N stations in Alaska shared those same frequencies. Where only one station was assigned to a clear channel, the treaty provides that it must operate with a nominal power of 50 kilowatts or more. These were for the most part Class I-A. Stations on the additional clear channels, with two or more stations, must use between 10 kW and 50 kW, and most most often use a directional antenna so as not to interfere with each other. In addition to the frequencies, the treaty additionally specified the specific locations where stations on Class I-B channels can be built.

Some of the original NARBA signatories, including the United States, Canada and Mexico, have implemented bilateral agreements that supersede NARBA's terms, eliminating amongst additional things the distinction between the two kinds of clear channel: the original "I-A" and "I-B" classes, and the newer, U.S.-only "I-N" class, which are now all included in class A. Classes "I-A" and "I-B" still mandate a minimum efficiency of 362.10 mV/m/kW at 1 km, whereas Class "I-N" is permitted to use the lower Class B minimum efficiency of 281.63 mV/m/kW at 1 km. There exist exceptions, where a former Class B station was elevated to Class A, yet it maintained its previous antenna system, or made only minor changes thereto.

Clear-channel stations, unlike all additional AM stations in North America, have a secondary service area; that is, they're entitled to protection from interference to their nighttime skywave signals. Other stations are entitled, at most, to protection from nighttime interference in their primary service area — that which is covered by their groundwave signal.

Many stations beyond those listed in the treaty have been assigned to operate on a clear channel (and a few had been long before NARBA came into effect in 1941). In most cases, those stations operate throughout the daytime only, so as not to interfere with the primary stations on those channels. Since the early 1980s, a large number of such stations have been permitted to operate at night with such low power as to be deemed not to interfere; these stations are still considered "daytimers" and aren't entitled to any protection from interference to their nighttime signals. An Additional group of stations, formerly known as class II stations, were licenced to operate on the former "I-B" clear channels with significant power at night, provided that they use directional antenna systems to minimise radiation towards the primary stations.

iHeartMedia, Inc. (formerly Clear Channel Communications until September 2014), a San Antonio, Texas-based company which owns over 1000 U.S. radio stations, was originally formed to purchase one clear-channel station, 1200 WOAI in its home city of San Antonio. The company now owns more than a dozen such stations.


For the U.S., a form of clear channels first appeared in 1922 when the Commerce Department moved stations which had all used three (initially two) frequencies (two for entertainment stations, one for "weather and crop reports") onto 52 frequencies. Two were set aside for low-power local and regional stations, while the large stations in major cities each got their own frequency. A few frequencies were used on both the East and West coasts, which were considered far enough apart to limit interference. At that time, large stations were limited to 1000 watts and a few licences were revoked.

On November 11, 1928, the United States implemented General Order 40, which classified each allocation in the AM band as either Local, Regional or Clear. The classification system considered stations in Canada as well. Gradually maximum power was increased to 50,000 watts (with a few short lived experiments with 250–500 kilowatt "super-power" operations). This system was continued in the 1941 NARBA system although almost all stations shifted broadcast frequencies. The FCC's intent behind licencing 50,000 watt clear channel stations was to provide reliable radio service to the thousands of Americans who lived in the vast rural areas of the United States. As a result, these stations most of the time reached large portions of North America at night. Radio fans most often call such stations "flamethrowers" or "blowtorches" because of their high power.

As early as the 1930s, debate raged in Washington, D.C., and in the U.S. broadcasting industry over whether continuation of the clear-channel system was justifiable. The licensees of clear-channel stations argued that, without their special status, a large number of rural areas would receive no radio service at all. Rural broadcasters pointed out that most of the clear-channel stations were licenced to serve large cities on the two coasts, which made little sense for a service that was meant to provide radio to the vast rural areas in the middle of the country. The clear-channel licensees requested that the power limit on the "I-A" channels in the U.S., set at 50 kW by the FCC, be lifted entirely. They pointed to successful experiments made by WLW in Cincinnati before the war, and in later years successful implementation by state broadcasters in Europe and the Middle East, as evidence that this would work and improve the service received by most Americans. Other broadcasters, particularly in the western states, argued to the contrary; that if the special status of the clear-channel stations was eliminated, they would be able to build facilities to provide local service to those rural "dark areas".

One of the most outspoken of the small-town broadcasters, Ed Craney of KGIR in Butte, Montana, went so far as to apply to move his station, then on the 1370 kHz regional channel, to a class I-A signal on 660 kHz, asking the FCC to downgrade the NBC New York flagship, WEAF, to make way for the Butte station. The FCC denied Craney's petition.

In 1941, several existing clear-channel stations applied for power increases to between 500 and 750 kW; dissemination of national defence information is cited as one reason this would be in the public interest. The FCC's engineering department presented a report on a complete reorganisation of the clear-channel service in October, 1941; the report considered the possibility of "some 25 superpower stations of 500,000 watts or more, strategically located to provide maximum service" (as Broadcasting described it), and suggested that stations would have to be relocated away from the east and west coasts in such a scenario, as coastal stations waste energy over the oceans. One complication the FCC considered was the "Wheeler Resolution", passed by the United States Senate in 1938, expressing the view of the Senate that radio stations should be limited to a maximum power of 50 kW.

One station, KOB in Albuquerque, New Mexico, fought a long legal battle against the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and New York's WABC for the right to move from a regional channel to a clear channel, 770 kHz, arguing that the New York signal was so weak in the mountain west that it served no one. KOB eventually won the argument in the late 1960s; it and several additional western stations were allowed to move to eastern clear channels. (Western clear channels, like 680 in San Francisco, had been "duplicated" in the eastern states for a large number of years.) These new class II-A assignments (in places like Boise, Idaho; Las Vegas and Reno, Nevada; Lexington, Nebraska; Casper, Wyoming; Kalispell, Montana; and others) began what would later be called "the breakdown of the clear channels". The class I-A station owners' proposal to increase power fifteenfold wasn't immediately quashed, but the new II-A stations would make it effectively impossible for stations on the duplicated channels to do so, and the owners eventually lost interest. That proposal was finally taken off the FCC's docket in the late 1970s.

On May 29, 1980, the FCC voted to limit the protection for all clear channel stations to a 750-mile radius around the transmitter. Stations on those frequencies outside the area of protection were no longer required to sign off or power down after sundown.

In 1987 the FCC changed its rules to prohibit applications for new "class-D" stations. (Class-D stations have night power between zero and 250 watts, and frequently operate on clear channels.) Notwithstanding any existing station could voluntarily relinquish nighttime authority, thereby fitting a class-D, and several have done so after the rule change.


Daytimers (also known as daytime-only stations) are AM radio stations that are limited to broadcasting throughout the daytime only, as their signals would interfere with clear channel and additional radio stations at night, when solar radiation is reduced, and medium wave radio signals can propagate much farther. Such stations are most of the time supposed to do one of three things: sign off, reduce power (sometimes dramatically, to only a few watts), or switch to another (typically near-by) frequency, like the Detroit area's WNZK (690 day, 680 night). Their broadcast class is Class D. A number of these stations additionally broadcast on the internet and have separate streams that air when the station's over-the-air signal has signed-off.

As of 2013, daytimers only exist in the United States and Mexico. The last Canadian daytime station, CKOT, signed off on February 17 of that year after converting to the FM band. There were 61 daytimers in Mexico in 2015.[3]

List of all clear-channel stations

The following two tables show all of the class-A stations in North America. First is the Canada, Mexico, and contiguous United States table, for the former class I-A and class I-B stations. Second is the Alaska table, for the former class I-N stations.

Under the most recent treaty, Mexican Class A stations which previously operated with 50 kW or less (but a minimum of 10 kW nights) might increase power to 100 kW days while retaining their 10 kW night operation. This created a few anomalies where stations licenced for 10 kW throughout all hours could increase power to 100 kW days and 10 kW nights, unless a directional antenna system was installed for nights, in which case the maximum night power was 50 kW. Additionally, one Class B station which had been operating non-directionally with 100 kW days and 50 kW nights was required to reduce power to 50 kW throughout all hours.

Class A (former I-A/I-B) stations
CallsignCity of license
540CBKWatrous, Saskatchewan
540CBTGrand Falls, Newfoundland and Labrador
540XEWASan Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí
640CBNSt. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador
640KFILos Angeles, California
650WSMNashville, Tennessee
660WFANNew York, New York
670WSCRChicago, Illinois
680KNBRSan Francisco, California
690CKGMMontreal, Quebec
690XEWWTijuana, Baja California
700WLWCincinnati, Ohio
710KIROSeattle, Washington
710WORNew York, New York
720WGNChicago, Illinois
730CKACMontreal, Quebec
730XEXMexico City, D.F.
740CFZMToronto, Ontario
750WSBAtlanta, Georgia
760WJRDetroit, Michigan
770WABCNew York, New York
780WBBMChicago, Illinois
800XEROKCiudad Juárez, Chihuahua
810KGOSan Francisco, California
810WGYSchenectady, New York
820WBAPFort Worth, Texas
830WCCOMinneapolis, Minnesota
840WHASLouisville, Kentucky
850KOADenver, Colorado
850silentIxhuatlancillo, Veracruz
860CJBCToronto, Ontario
870WWLNew Orleans, Louisiana
880WCBSNew York, New York
890WLSChicago, Illinois
900XEWMexico City, D.F.
940silentMontreal, Quebec
940XEQMexico City, D.F.
990CBWWinnipeg, Manitoba
990CBYCorner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador
1000KOMOSeattle, Washington
1000WMVPChicago, Illinois
1000XEOYMexico City, D.F.
1010CBRCalgary, Alberta
1010CFRBToronto, Ontario
1020KDKAPittsburgh, Pennsylvania
1030WBZBoston, Massachusetts
1040WHODes Moines, Iowa
1050XEGMonterrey, Nuevo León
1060KYWPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania
1060XEEPMexico City
1070silentMoncton, New Brunswick
1070KNXLos Angeles, California
1080WTICHartford, Connecticut
1080KRLDDallas, Texas
1090KAAYLittle Rock, Arkansas
1090WBALBaltimore, Maryland
1090XEPRSRancho del Mar, Rosarito, Baja California
1100WTAMCleveland, Ohio
1110KFABOmaha, Nebraska
1110WBTCharlotte, North Carolina
1120KMOXSt. Louis, Missouri
1130CKWXVancouver, British Columbia
1130KWKHShreveport, Louisiana
1130WBBRNew York, New York
1140WRVARichmond, Virginia
1140XEMRMonterrey, Nuevo León
1160KSLSalt Lake City, Utah
1170KFAQTulsa, Oklahoma
1170WWVAWheeling, West Virginia
1180WHAMRochester, New York
1190KEXPortland, Oregon
1190XEWKGuadalajara, Jalisco
1200WOAISan Antonio, Texas
1210WPHTPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania
1220XEBMexico City, D.F.
1500KSTPSaint Paul, Minnesota
1500WFEDWashington, D.C.
1510WLACNashville, Tennessee
1520KOKCOklahoma City, Oklahoma
1520WWKBBuffalo, New York
1530KFBKSacramento, California
1530WCKYCincinnati, Ohio
1540KXELWaterloo, Iowa
1540ZNS-1Nassau, Bahamas
1550CBEFWindsor, Ontario
1550silentXalapa, Veracruz
1560KNZRBakersfield, California
1560WFMENew York, New York
1570XERFCiudad Acuña, Coahuila
1580CKDO[2]Oshawa, Ontario
Alaskan class A (former class I-N) stations
CallsignCity of license
1020KVNTEagle River
1170KJNPNorth Pole


  1. 690 kHz at Montreal was originally assigned under NARBA to CBF (that station migrated to FM in 1998), and was later reused by CINF; after CINF closed in January 2010, CKGM applied for and was granted the frequency, and moved from 990 kHz to 690 kHz in September 2012.
  2. 740 kHz was used by CBC Radio One's CBL in Toronto until 2000 when the station moved to 99.1 FM. CFZM, known at the time as CHWO, acquired 740 in 2001.
  3. 850 kHz was home to XETQ-AM, which migrated to FM as XHTQ-FM. At its height XETQ was authorised for 100 kW day/50 kW night. In the 1990s it lowered its power to 10 kW day/1 kW night.
  4. 940 kHz at Montreal was originally assigned under NARBA to CBM (that station migrated to FM in 1998), and was later reused by CINW, which ceased operations in 2010; though now silent, it remains notified to the U.S. as a class-A allotment. A new licence has been granted to Tietolman-Tétrault-Pancholy Media (TTP) to broadcast at 940 AM by the CRTC, but after numerous delays, the Commission will cancel the licence if the new station doesn't commence broadcasting by November 21, 2016.
  5. 1070 kHz was formerly used by CBA, which moved to FM in April 2008. Canada hasn't withdrawn the international notification for CBA.
  6. 1550 kHz was originally CBE (AM), which shut down the AM station after moving to 97.5 CBEW-FM in 2011. On November 1, 2012, CBEF, traditionally on 540 kHz, additionally started broadcasting on the same AM transmitter and frequency that CBE had used.
  7. XERUV-AM operated on this frequency until a bad permit renewal, made in 2005, required it to shut down in June 2016. The university wants to resume operation on AM but must apply for a new public concession in order to do.
  8. KNZR is the sole U.S. class-A station licenced to operate with less than 50 kilowatts full-time; KNZR is licenced for 25 kW throughout the day and 10 kW at night.
  9. 1580 kHz was originally used by CBJ in Chicoutimi, Quebec. After that station moved to FM in 1999, CHUC applied for and was granted 1580 kHz in Cobourg, Ontario with 10 kW, but chose instead to move to FM itself (despite being notified to the U.S. as an existing station on 1580). CKDO moved from 1350 to 1580 kHz on August 13, 2006 and became that day a class A station using 10 kW. U.S. FCC record is at

List of former clear-channel stations

These allocations have been downgraded rather than transferred to a different station.

CallsignCity of licenseFate
1190WOWOFort Wayne, IndianaDowngraded to class B in 1998 by reducing night power to 9.8 kilowatts with a three tower directional antenna; Inner City Broadcasting purchased WOWO so that their additional station in New York City, WLIB, could remain on the air 24 hours a day. WOWO was later purchased by Pathfinder Communications, the current owners.
1510KGASpokane, WashingtonDowngraded to class B in 2011 to make room for co-channel sister station KSFN, Piedmont, California, reducing night power to 15 kW