Allahabad (/əˈlɑːhəbɑːd/ ( ), local Hindustani pronunciation: [ɪlaːɦˈbaːd̪]), or Prayag (/prəˈjɑːɡ/), is a large metropolitan city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Allahabad District, the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India and the Allahabad Division. The city is the judicial and political capital of Uttar Pradesh with Allahabad High Court being the highest judicial body in the state. As of 2011, Allahabad is the seventh most populous city in the state, twelfth in the Northern India and thirty-sixth in India, with an estimated population of 1.11 million in the city and 1.21 million in its metropolitan region.[9][2] In 2011 it was ranked the world's 40th fastest-growing city.[11][12] Allahabad, in 2016, was ranked the third most liveable city in the state (after Noida and Lucknow) and sixteen in the country.[13]

The city's original name – Prayag, or "place of offerings" – comes from its position at the Sangam (confluence) of the Ganga, Yamuna and Sarasvati rivers. It is the second-oldest city in India, and plays a central role in Hindu scriptures. Allahabad was originally called Kaushambi (now a separate district) by the Kuru rulers of Hastinapur, who developed it as their capital. Since then, Allahabad has been a political, cultural and administrative centre of the Doab region. Mughal emperor Akbar renamed it Ilahabad, which the British changed to Allahabad. In 1833 it became the seat of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces region before its capital was moved to Agra in 1835.[14] Allahabad became the capital of the North-Western Provinces in 1858, and was the capital of India for a day.[15] The city was the capital of the United Provinces from 1902[15] to 1920[16] and remained at the forefront of national importance during the struggle for Indian independence.[17]

Located in southern Uttar Pradesh, the city's metropolitan area covers 70.5 km2 (27.22 sq miles).[18] Although the city and its surrounding area are governed by several municipalities, a large portion of Allahabad District is governed by the Allahabad City Council. The city is home to colleges, research institutions and 2 dozen central and state government offices. Allahabad has hosted cultural and sporting events, including Kumbh Mela and the Indira Marathon. Although the city's economy was built on tourism, most of its income now derives from real estate and financial services.This is 2nd most revenue providing district in Uttar Pradesh.

History

Allahabad Fort, built by Akbar in 1575
Mahatma Gandhi at a January 1940 Congress Working Committee meeting with Vallabhbhai Patel and Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit at Anand Bhavan in Allahabad

The city was earlier known as Prayāga, a name still commonly used. Prayāga existed during the Vedic period, and is mentioned in the Veda as the location where Brahma (the Hindu creator of the universe) attended a ritual sacrifice.[19] Excavations have revealed Northern Black Polished Ware dating to 600–700 BCE.[19] The Puranas record that Yayati left Prayaga and conquered the region of Saptha Sindhu.[20] His five sons (Yadu, Druhyu, Puru, Anu and Turvashu) founded the main tribes of the Rigveda.[21] Lord Rama, the protagonist of the Ramayana, spent time at the Ashram of Sage Bharadwaj before travelling to nearby Chitrakoot.[22]

When the Aryans first settled in what they called the Āryāvarta (or Madhyadesha), Allahabad (then Kaushambi) was an important part of their territory.[23] The Kurus, rulers of Hastinapur (near present-day Delhi), established the town of Kaushambi near Allahabad.[24] They shifted their capital to Kaushambi when Hastinapur was destroyed by floods.[23]

The Doab region, which includes Allahabad, was controlled by a succession of empires and dynasties.[25] The area became part of the Maurya and Gupta Empires from the east and the Kushan Empire from the west before being governed by Kannauj during the 15th century.[23] The city was the site of Maratha incursions before India was colonised.[25] Allahabad became a part of the Delhi Sultanate when it was annexed by Mohammad Ghori in 1193.[26] Later, the Mughals took over from the slave rulers of Delhi and under them Allahabad rose to prominence.[27] Allahabad was a provincial capital in the Moghul Empire under the reign of Jahangir.[28] Padshah (emperor) Akbar the Great made it the seat of Illahabad Subah, one of his twelve original subahs (imperial top-level provinces), built a fort on the banks of the sangam and renamed the settlement Ilāhābād (Persian for "place of a god") in 1575.[27] A unique artefact associated with Jahangir's reign found in Allahabad is a large jade terrapin, now in the British Museum's collection.[29]

In 1765, forces of Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal, Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh and the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II lost the Battle of Buxar to the British;[30] this was followed by the Treaty of Allahabad. Although the British did not yet establish direct rule, they saw Allahabad's strategic position and in 1765 established a garrison in Akbar's Allahabad Fort.[31] In 1801, the Nawab of Awadh ceded the city to the British East India Company.[32] Gradually, the rest of the Doab and its adjoining western region in its west (including Delhi and Ajmer-Merwara) came under British rule.[30] The northwestern area became a new presidency, the North Western Provinces of Agra, with its capital at Agra.[30] Allahabad was an important part of the state.[33] In 1834, the city became the governmental seat of Agra Province and a High Court was established; a year later, both were moved to Agra.[30] Allahabad was a participant in the 1857 Indian Mutiny,[34] when Maulvi Liaquat Ali unfurled the banner of revolt.[35] During the rebellion Allahabad, with a number of European troops,[36] was the scene of a massacre.[28]

After the mutiny, the British established a high court, a police headquarters and a public-service commission in Allahabad,[37] making the city an administrative centre.[38] They truncated the Delhi region of the state, merging it with the Punjab and moving the capital of the North-Western Provinces to Allahabad (where it remained for 20 years).[16] In January 1858, Earl Canning departed Calcutta for Allahabad.[39] That year he read Queen Victoria's proclamation, transferring control of India from the East India Company to the British Crown (beginning the British Raj), in Minto Park.[40][29] In 1877 the provinces of Agra and Awadh were merged to form the United Provinces,[33] with Allahabad its capital until 1920.[16]

The 1888 session of the Indian National Congress was held in the city,[42] and by the turn of the 20th century Allahabad was a revolutionary centre.[43] Nityanand Chatterji became a household name when he hurled a bomb at a European club.[44] In Alfred Park in 1931, Chandrashekhar Azad died when surrounded by British police.[45] The Nehru family homes, Anand Bhavan and Swaraj Bhavan, were centres of Indian National Congress activity.[46] During the years before independence Allahabad was home to thousands of satyagrahis led by Purushottam Das Tandon, Bishambhar Nath Pande, Narayan Dutt Tiwari and others.[17] The first seeds of the Pakistani nation were sown in Allahabad.[47] On 29 December 1930, Allama Muhammad Iqbal's presidential address to the All-India Muslim League proposed a separate Muslim state for the Muslim-majority regions of India.[48]

Allahabad is known as the "city of prime ministers" because seven out of 15 prime ministers of India since independence have connections to Allahabad (Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, Gulzarilal Nanda, Vishwanath Pratap Singh and Chandra Shekhar). All seven leaders were either born there, were alumni of Allahabad University or were elected from an Allahabad constituency.[2]

Geography

Cityscape

Allahabad's elevation is over 90 m (295 ft) above sea level. The old part of the city, at the south of Allahabad Junction Railway Station, consists of neighbourhoods like Chowk, Johnstongunj, Dariyabad, Khuldabad and many more.[49] In the north of the Railway Station, the new city consists of neighbourhoods like Lukergunj, Civil Lines, Georgetown, Tagoretown, Allahpur, Ashok Nagar, Mumfordgunj, Bharadwaj Puram and others which are relatively new and were built during the British rule.[50] Civil Lines is the central business district of the city and is famous for its urban setting, gridiron plan roads[51] and high rise buildings. Built in 1857, it was the largest town-planning project carried out in India before the establishment of New Delhi.[50][51] Allahabad has many buildings featuring Indo-Islamic and Indo-Saracenic architecture. Although several buildings from the colonial period have been declared "heritage structures", others are deteriorating.[52] Famous landmarks of the city are Allahabad Museum, New Yamuna Bridge, Allahabad University, Triveni Sangam, All Saints Cathedral, Anand Bhavan, Alfred Park etc.[53]

Topography

Allahabad is in Southern part of Uttar Pradesh, at the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna .[54][55] The region was known in antiquity first as the Kuru, then as the Vats country.[56] To the southwest is Bundelkhand, to the east and southeast is Baghelkhand, to the north and northeast is Awadh and to the west is the lower doab (of which Allahabad is part).[54] The city is divided by a railway line running east-west.[54] South of the railway is the Old Chowk area, and the British-built Civil Lines is north of it. Allahabad is geographically and culturally strategically located.[57] Geographically part of the Ganga-Yamuna Doab (at the mouth of the Yamuna), culturally it is the terminus of the Indian west.[58] The Indian Standard Time longitude (25.15°N 82.58°E) is near the city. According to a United Nations Development Programme report, Allahabad is in a "low damage risk" wind and cyclone zone.[16] In common with the rest of the doab, its soil and water are primarily alluvial.[61] Pratapgarh is north of the city, Bhadohi is east, Rewa is south, Chitrakoot (earlier Banda) is west, and Kaushambi, which was till recently a part of Allahabad, is North-West.

Climate

Allahabad has a humid subtropical climate common to cities in the plains of North India, designated Cwa in the Köppen climate classification.[62] The annual mean temperature is 26.1 °C (79.0 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 18–29 °C (64–84 °F).[63] Allahabad has three seasons: a hot, dry summer, a cool, dry winter and a hot, humid monsoon. Summer lasts from March to September with daily highs reaching up to 48 °C in the dry summer (from March to May) and up to 40 °C in the hot and extremely humid monsoon season (from June to September).[63] The monsoon begins in June, and lasts till August; high humidity levels prevail well into September. Winter runs from December to February,[64] with temperatures rarely dropping to the freezing point. The daily average maximum temperature is about 22 °C (72 °F) and the minimum about 9 °C (48 °F).[65] Allahabad never receives snow, but experiences dense winter fog due to numerous wood fires, coal fires, and open burning of rubbish—resulting in substantial traffic and travel delays,[64] but the city does not receive snow.[66] Its highest recorded temperature is 48 °C (118.4 °F), and its lowest is −2 °C (28 °F).[63][67]

Rain from the Bay of Bengal or the Arabian Sea branches of the southwest monsoon[4] falls on Allahabad from June to September, supplying the city with most of its annual rainfall of 1,027 mm (40 in).[66] The highest monthly rainfall total, 333 mm (13 in), occurs in August.[69] The city receives 2,961 hours of sunshine per year, with maximum sunlight in May.[67]

Climate data for Allahabad
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)32.8
(91)
36.3
(97.3)
42.5
(108.5)
45.8
(114.4)
48.4
(119.1)
48.8
(119.8)
45.6
(114.1)
42.7
(108.9)
39.6
(103.3)
40.6
(105.1)
36.0
(96.8)
31.9
(89.4)
48.8
(119.8)
Average high °C (°F)23.2
(73.8)
26.7
(80.1)
33.3
(91.9)
39.4
(102.9)
41.6
(106.9)
39.6
(103.3)
34.2
(93.6)
32.9
(91.2)
32.9
(91.2)
32.9
(91.2)
29.6
(85.3)
24.8
(76.6)
32.8
(91)
Average low °C (°F)8.9
(48)
11.3
(52.3)
16.2
(61.2)
22.2
(72)
26.3
(79.3)
28.0
(82.4)
26.5
(79.7)
25.9
(78.6)
24.7
(76.5)
20.4
(68.7)
14.3
(57.7)
9.9
(49.8)
19.4
(66.9)
Record low °C (°F)1.1
(34)
1.1
(34)
7.2
(45)
12.7
(54.9)
17.2
(63)
18.7
(65.7)
18.8
(65.8)
21.1
(70)
18.3
(64.9)
11.7
(53.1)
5.6
(42.1)
−0.7
(30.7)
−0.7
(30.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)18.3
(0.72)
15.2
(0.598)
4.2
(0.165)
5.9
(0.232)
11.5
(0.453)
126.6
(4.984)
264.5
(10.413)
279.0
(10.984)
204.3
(8.043)
27.4
(1.079)
9.5
(0.374)
12.1
(0.476)
978.5
(38.524)
Average rainy days1.81.40.40.71.15.412.712.19.11.80.60.747.9
Average relative humidity (%)69573929335077817867616859
Mean monthly sunshine hours224.9244.2263.2274.1292.3206.4143.3180.6184.3259.7256.7244.02,773.7
Source #1: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[70][183]
Source #2: NOAA (humidity, sun 1971–1990)

Biodiversity

The Ganga-Jamuna Doab, of which Allahabad is a part, is on the western Indus-Gangetic Plain region. The doab (including the Terai) is responsible for the city's unique flora and fauna.[73][74] Since the arrival of humans, nearly half of city's vertebrates have become extinct. Others are endangered or have had their range severely reduced. Associated changes in habitat and the introduction of reptiles, snakes and other mammals led to the extinction of bird species, including large birds such as eagles.[73] The Allahabad Museum, one of four national museums in India, is documenting the flora and fauna of the Ganga and the Yamuna.[75] In order to protect the rich aquatic biodiversity of river Ganga from escalating anthropogenic pressures, development of a Turtle sanctuary in Allahabad along with a River Biodiversity Park at Sangam have been approved under Namami Gange programme.

The most common birds found in the city are doves, peacocks, junglefowl, black partridge, house sparrows, songbirds, blue jays, parakeets, quails, bulbuls, and comb ducks.[76] Large numbers of Deer are found in Trans Yamuna area of Allahabad. India's first conservation reserve for black buck is being created in Allahabad's Meja Forest Division. Other animals in the state include reptiles such as lizards, cobras, kraits, and gharials.[73] During winter, large numbers of Siberian birds are reported in the sangam and nearby wetlands.[77]

Demographics

Others include Buddhism, Jainism, other religions and no particular religion (0.63%)
Religion in Allahabad[9]
ReligionPercent
Hinduism
76.03%
Islam
21.94%
Christianity
0.68%
Sikhism
0.28%
Others
1.07%
Allahabad population growth
CensusTotal %±
1981642,20025.2%
1991792,90023.5%
2001990,29824.9%
20111,117,09412.8%
Source: Census of India[9] [16][79]

The 2011 census reported a population of 1,117,094 in Allahabad city.[9] Provisional data suggest a density of 1,086 people per km2 in 2011 for Allahabad district, compared to 901 in 2001.[9] Natives of Uttar Pradesh form the majority of Allahabad's population. With regards to Houseless Census in Allahabad, total 5,672 families live on footpath or without any roof cover. This approx 0.38% of total population of Allahabad district. The sex ratio of Allahabad is 901 per 1000 males and child sex ratio of girls is 893 per 1000 boys, lower than the national average.[9]

Hindi, the official state language, is the dominant language in Allahabad. Urdu and other languages are spoken by a sizable minority. Hindus form the majority of Allahabad's population; Muslims compose a large minority. According to provisional results of the 2011 national census, Hinduism is majority religion in Allahabad city with 76.03% followers. Islam is second most popular religion in city of Allahabad with approximately 21.94 % following it. Christianity is followed by 0.68 %, Jainism by 0.10 %, Sikhism by 0.28 % and Buddhism by 0.28 %. Around 0.02 % stated 'Other Religion', approximately 0.90 % stated 'No Particular Religion'. Allahabad's literacy rate of 86.50 percent is the highest in the region.[10] Male literacy is 90.21 percent and female literacy 82.17 percent.[81] Among 35 major Indian cities, Allahabad reported the highest rate of violations of special and local laws to the National Crime Records Bureau.[79]

Administration and politics

General Administration

Allahabad division which consists of four districts, and is headed by the Divisional Commissioner of Allahabad, who is an IAS officer of high seniority, the Commissioner is the head of local government institutions (including Municipal Corporations) in the division, is in charge of infrastructure development in his division, and is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the division.[185][12] The District Magistrate of Allahabad reports to the Divisional Commissioner. The current Commissioner is Ashish Kumar Goel.[187][188][189][190]

Allahabad district administration is headed by the District Magistrate of Allahabad, who is an IAS officer. The DM are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the central government and oversee the elections held in the city. The DM is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the city, hence the SSP of Allahabad also reports to the DM of Allahabad.[185][13] The DM is assisted by a Chief Development Officer (CDO), five Additional District Magistrates (ADM) (Finance/Revenue, City, Rural Area, Land Acquisition, Civil Supply), one Chief Revenue Officer (CRO) one City Magistrate (CM), and three Additional City Magistrates (ACM).[189][190] The district has eight teshils viz. Sadar, Soraon, Phulpur, Handia, Karchhana, Bara, Meja and Kuraon, each headed by a Sub Divisional magistrate.[189] The current DM is Suhas LY.[187][188][189][190]

Police Administration

Allahabad district comes under the Allahabad Police Zone and Allahabad Police Range, Allahabad Zone is headed by an Additional Director General ranked IPS officer, and the Allahabad Range is headed Inspector General ranked IPS officer. The current ADG, Allahabad Zone is Satya Narain Sabat,[192] and IG, Allahabad Range is Ramit Sharma.[193]

The district police is headed by a Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP), who is an IPS officer, and is assisted by eight Superintendents of Police (SP)/Additional Superintendents of Police (Addl. SP) (City, Ganga Par, Yamuna Par, Crime, Traffic, Modern Control Room, Protocol and Security), who are either IPS officers or PPS officers.[194] Each of the several police circles is headed by a Circle Officer (CO) in the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police.[194] The current SSP is Aakash kulhari.[194]

Infrastructure and Civic Administration

The development of infrastructure in the city is overseen by Allahabad Development Authority (ADA), which comes under the Housing Department of Uttar Pradesh government. The Divisional Commissioner of Allahabad acts as the ex-officio Chairman of ADA, whereas a Vice Chairman, a government-appointed IAS officer, looks after the daily matters of the authority.[13] The current Vice Chairman of ADA is Bhanu Chandra Goswami.[196]

The Allahabad Nagar Nigam (ANN), also called Allahabad Municipal Corporation (AMC), oversees the city's civic infrastructure under the Allahabad Metropolitan Region. The corporation originated in 1864, when the Lucknow Municipal Act was passed by the Government of India.[83] Allahabad is divided into 80 wards, with one member (or corporator) elected from each ward to form the Municipal Committee. The head of the corporation is the Mayor, but the executive and administration of the corporation are the responsibility of the Municipal Commissioner, who is a Uttar Pradesh government-appointed Provincial Civil Service (PCS) officer of high seniority. The current Mayor of Allahabad is Abhilash Gupta, whereas the Municipal Commissioner is Harikesh Chaurasia.[197][198]

Image
A typical Indian peacock, found in Allahabad on a large scale

Politics

Allahabad is the seat of Allahabad High Court, the highest judicial body in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The city is known as the "Prime Minister Capital of India", since seven of fifteen Prime Ministers of India are from the city.[2] Allahabad is administered by several government agencies. As the seat of the Government of Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad is home to local governing agencies and the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly (located in the Allahabad High Court building).[85] The Allahabad district elects two representatives to India's lower house, the Lok Sabha, and 12 representatives to the state legislative assembly.[86] Allahabad is also the headquarters of Central Zonal Council and of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities.

Economy

Overall Allahabad has a very stable and diverse economy comprising various sectors such as State and Central government offices, education and research institutions, real estate, retail, banking, tourism and hospitality, agriculture based industries, railways, transport and logistics, miscellaneous service sectors, and manufacturing. Average Household Income of the city is US$2,299.[87]

The construction sector is a major part of Allahabad's economy.[88] Secondary manufacturers and services may be registered or unregistered;[89] according to the third All India Census for Small Scale Industries, there are more than 10,000 unregistered small-scale industries in the city.[90][91] An integrated industrial township has been proposed for 1,200 acres (490 ha) in Allahabad by the Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India.[92]

The city is also home to glass and wire-based industry.[36] The main industrial areas of Allahabad are Naini and Phulpur, where several public and private sector companies have offices and factories.[94] Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, India's largest oil company (which is state-owned), is constructing a seven-million-tonnes-per-annum (MTPA) capacity refinery in Lohgara with an investment estimated at ₹62 billion.[18] Allahabad Bank, which began operations in 1865,[90] Bharat Pumps & Compressors and A. H. Wheeler and Company have their headquarters in the city. Major companies in the city are Reliance Industries, , ITI Limited, BPCL, Dey's Medical, Food Corporation of India, Raymond Synthetics, Triveni Sheet Glass, Triveni Electroplast, EMC Power Ltd, Steel Authority of India, HCL Technologies, Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative (IFFCO), Vibgyor Laboratories, Geep Industries, Hindustan Cable, Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Baidyanath Ayurved, Hindustan Laboratories and .[89][96][97] The city is also headquarters of Central Organisation for Railway Electrification.[3]

The primary economic sectors of the district are tourism, fishing and agriculture, and the city is a hub for India's agricultural industry.[100][101] In case of Agriculture crops Paddy has the largest share followed by Bajra, Arhar, Urd & Moong in declining order during the Kharif season. In Rabi, Wheat is pre dominant followed by pulses and oilseed. Among oilseed crops, Mustard has very less area under pure farming and is grown mainly as a mixed crop. Linseed dominates the oilseed scenario of the district and is mainly grown in Jamunapar area. In case of pulses gram has largest area followed by pea and lentil (masoor). There is fairly good acreage under barley.[102]

Transportation and utilities

Allahabad is served by Allahabad Airport (IATA: IXDICAO: VIAL), which began operations in February 1966. The airport is 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the city centre and lies in Bamrauli, Allahabad. Air India's regional arm Alliance Air connects Allahabad to Delhi.[126][127] Other nearby airports are in Varanasi, Lucknow and Kanpur.[128]

Allahabad Junction is one of the main railway junctions in northern India and headquarters of the North Central Railway Zone.[2] The Seven major railway stations in Allahabad are Allahabad Junction, Subedarganj railway station, Naini Railway Station and Cheoki Junction railway station under North Central Railways whereas Prayag Junction railway station under Northern Railways and Allahabad City railway station at Rambagh and Daraganj Station under North Eastern Railways. The city is connected to most other Uttar Pradesh cities and major Indian cities such as Kolkata, New Delhi, Hyderabad, Patna, Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Bangalore, Guwahati, Thiruvananthapuram, Pune, Bhopal, Kanpur, Lucknow and Jaipur.[131]

Buses operated by Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) and Allahabad City Transport Service are an important means of public transport for travelling to various parts of the city,state and outskirts.[134] Auto Rickshaws have been a popular mode of transportation.[132] Cycle rickshaws are the most economical means of transportation in Allahabad along with e-rickshaws.[132][3] National Highway 19 (old number: NH 2) connecting to Delhi and Kolkata, National Highway 35 connecting to Mirzapur, Jhansi and Udaipur (old number :NH 76 and 76E merged), National Highway 30 (old number:NH 24B and 27 merged) connecting to Lucknow, Rewa and Southern India and National Highway 330 (old number: NH 96) connecting to Sultanpur-Faizabad runs through the city.[3] India's longest cable-stayed bridge, the New Yamuna Bridge (built 2001–04), is located in Allahabad and connects the city to the suburb of Naini across the Yamuna.[136] The Old Naini Bridge now accommodates railway and auto traffic.[137][138] A road bridge across the Ganga also connects Allahabad and Jhusi.[139] National Waterway 1, the longest Waterway in India, connects Allahabad and Haldia.[140] A Metrorail project for the city covering the entire metropolitan region is also underway.[205][206]

The city generates 5,34,760 kg of domestic solid wastes everyday, while per capita generation of waste is 0.40 kg per day. The sewer service areas are divided into nine zones in the city.[18] Allahabad Municipal Corporation oversees the solid waste management project.[141] Allahabad was the first city to get pre-paid meters for electricity bill in Uttar Pradesh.[142][143] The city is equipped with over 40 CCTVs at major crossings and markets.[144]Also Allahabad was declared as a smart city in the year 2015 and the funds were provided by the United States of America.

Education

Image
The Allahabad High Court is India's fourth-oldest high court

The Allahabad educational system is distinct from Uttar Pradesh's other cities, with an emphasis on broad education.[145] Board of High School and Intermediate Education Uttar Pradesh, the world's biggest examining body, is headquartered in the city.[146][147] Although English is the language of instruction in most private schools, government schools and colleges offer Hindi and English-medium education.[11] Schools in Allahabad follow the 10+2+3 plan. After completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in higher secondary schools affiliated with the Uttar Pradesh Board of High School and Intermediate Education, the ICSE or the CBSE.[11] and focus on liberal arts, business or science. Vocational programs are also available.[149]

Allahabad attracts students from throughout India. As of 2017, the city has one central university, one State Universities, three deemed universities and an open university.[150] Allahabad University, founded in 1876, is the oldest university in the state.[150] Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad is a noted technical institution.[151] Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences is an 'A-grade', deemed university with global standards.[152][153][154] Other notable institutions in Allahabad include the Indian Institute of Information Technology - Allahabad; Motilal Nehru Medical College; Ewing Christian College; Harish-Chandra Research Institute; Govind Ballabh Pant Social Science Institute; Allahabad State University[208] and Institute of Engineering and Rural Technology.

Culture

Although Hindu women have traditionally worn saris, the shalwar kameez and Western attire is gaining acceptance among younger women.[119] Western dress is worn more by men, although the dhoti and kurta are seen during festivals. The formal male sherwani is often worn with chooridar on festive occasions.[119] Diwali, holi, Eid and Vijayadasami are the three most popular festivals in Allahabad.[121]

Literature

Allahabad has a literary and artistic heritage; the former capital of the United Provinces, it was known as Prayag in the Vedas, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.[3][104] Allahabad has been called the "literary capital of Uttar Pradesh",[105] attracting visitors from East Asia;[106] the Chinese travellers Faxian and Xuanzang found a flourishing city in the fifth and seventh centuries, respectively.[106][107] The number of foreign tourists, which mostly consisted of Asians, visiting the city was 98,167 in 2010 which subsequently increased to 1,07,141 in 2014.[108] The city has a tradition of political graffiti which includes limericks and caricatures.[43] In 1900, Saraswati first Hindi monthly magazine of India, was started by Chintamani Ghosh. Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, the doyen of modern Hindi literature, remained its editors from 1903 to 1920.[2] The Anand Bhavan, built during the 1930s as a new home for the Nehru family when the Swaraj Bhavan became the local Indian National Congress headquarters, has memorabilia from the Gandhi-Nehru family.[110]

During the 19th and 20th centuries, Hindi literature was modernised by authors such as Mahadevi Varma, Sumitranandan Pant, Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala' and Harivansh Rai Bachchan.[111] A noted poet was Raghupati Sahay, better known as Firaq Gorakhpuri.[112] Gorakhpuri and Varma have received Jnanpith Awards.[113][113][114] Allahabad is a publication centre for Hindi literature, including the Lok Bharti, Rajkamal and Neelabh. Persian and Urdu literature are also studied in the city.[115] Akbar Allahabadi is a noted modern Urdu poet, and Nooh Narwi, Tegh Allahabadi, Shabnam Naqvi and Rashid Allahabadi hail from Allahabad.[116] English author and 1907 Nobel laureate Rudyard Kipling was an assistant editor and overseas correspondent for The Pioneer.

Entertainment and recreation

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Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, a public engineering and management school

Allahabad is noted for historic, cultural and religious tourism. Historic sites include Alfred Park, the Victoria and Thornhill Mayne Memorials, Minto Park, Allahabad Fort, the Ashoka Pillar and Khusro Bagh. Religious attractions include the Kumbh Mela, the Triveni Sangam and All Saints Cathedral. The city hosts the Maha Kumbh Mela, the largest religious gathering in the world, every twelve years and the Ardh (half) Kumbh Mela every six years.[124][125] Cultural attractions include the Allahabad Museum, the Jawahar Planetarium and the University of Allahabad. North Central Zone Culture Center, under Ministry of Culture (India) and Prayag Sangeet Samiti are nationally renowned centres of Arts, Dance, Music, local Folk Dance and Music, Plays/Theatre etc. and nurture upcoming artists. The city has also hosted International Film Festival of Prayag.[214]

Media

Hindi being the regional language of the city, Dainik Jagran, Amar Ujala, Dainik Bhaskar, Hindustan Dainik, Daily News Activist and Aaj are popular among the masses.[162] The Leader and The Pioneer are two major English-language newspapers that are produced and published from the city;[163][164] other popular English-language newspapers include The Times of India, the Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Indian Express, and The Asian Age.[162]

All India Radio, the national, state-owned radio broadcaster, has AM radio stations in the city. Allahabad has seven FM stations, including two AIR stations: Gyan Vani and Vividh Bharti, four private FM channels: BIG FM 92.7, Red FM 93.5, Fever 104 FM and Radio Tadka and one educational FM radio channel Radio Adan 90.4 run by Allahabad Agricultural Institute. [165][166] There is a Doordarshan Kendra in the city.[167] Regional TV channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast satellite service or Internet-based television.[168]

Sports

Cricket and field hockey are the most popular sports in Allahabad,[155] with kabaddi, kho-kho, gilli danda and pehlwani are played in rural areas near the city.[156] Gully cricket, also known as street cricket, is popular among city youth.[155] The famous cricket club Allahabad Cricketers has produced many national and international cricket players. Several sports complexes are used by amateur and professional athletes; these include the Madan Mohan Malviya Stadium, the Amitabh Bachchan Sports Complex and the Boys' High School and College Gymnasium.[157] There is an international-level swimming complex in Georgetown.[158] The National Sports Academy in Jhalwa trains gymnasts for the Commonwealth Games. The Indira Marathon honours the late prime minister Indira Gandhi.[2][160][161]

See also