1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1916th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 916th year of the 2nd millennium, the 16th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1916, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
Below, the events of the First World War have the "WWI" prefix.
- January 1 – The British Royal Army Medical Corps carries out the first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled.
- January 9 – WWI: Gallipoli Campaign: Last British troops evacuated from Gallipoli, as the Ottoman Empire prevails over a joint British and French operation to capture Istanbul.
- January 13 – WWI: Battle of Wadi: Ottoman Empire forces defeat the Allied British during the Mesopotamian campaign in modern-day Iraq.
- January 24
- January 29 – WWI: Paris is bombed by German zeppelins for the first time.
- January 30 – The McMahon–Hussein Correspondence between Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca and the British official Henry McMahon concerning the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire ends.
- January 31 – WWI: An attack is planned on Verdun, France.
- February 3 – Parliament buildings in Ottawa, Canada are burned down.
- February 9 – 6.00 p.m. – Tristan Tzara "founds" the art movement Dadaism (according to Hans Arp).
- February 11
- February 12 – WWI: Battle of Salaita Hill (East African Campaign) – South African and other British Empire troops fail to take a German East African defensive position.
- February 21 – WWI: The Battle of Verdun begins in France.
- March 7 – In Munich German automobile company BMW (Die Bayerischen Motoren Werke) is founded.
- March 8–9 – Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa leads about 500 Mexican raiders in an attack against Columbus, New Mexico, killing 12 U.S. soldiers. A garrison of the U.S. 13th Cavalry Regiment fights back and drives them away.
- March 15 – United States President Woodrow Wilson sends 12,000 United States troops over the U.S.–Mexico border to pursue Pancho Villa; the 13th Cavalry regiment enters Mexican territory.
- March 16 – Mexican Revolution: The U.S. 7th and 10th Cavalry regiments under John J. Pershing cross the border to join the hunt for Villa.
- March 22
- March 24 – The French ferry SS Sussex is torpedoed by SM UB-29 in the English Channel with at least 50 killed (including the composer Enrique Granados), resulting on May 4 in the Sussex pledge by Germany to the United States suspending its intensified submarine warfare policy.
- April – The toggle light switch is invented by William J. Newton and Morris Goldberg.
- April 11 – WWI: Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins occupation of the Sinai Peninsula.
- April 20 – The Chicago Cubs play their first game at Weeghman Park (modern-day Wrigley Field), defeating the Cincinnati Reds 7–6 in 11 innings.
- April 22 – The Chinese troop transport SS Hsin-Yu capsizes off the Chinese coast; at least 1,000 are killed.
- April 24–30 – The Easter Rising occurs in Ireland. Members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood proclaim an Irish Republic and the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army occupy the General Post Office and other buildings in Dublin before surrendering to the British Army.
- April 24–May 10 – Voyage of the James Caird: an open boat journey from Elephant Island in the South Shetland Islands to South Georgia in the southern Atlantic Ocean (800 nautical miles (1,500 km; 920 mi)) undertaken by Sir Ernest Shackleton and five companions to obtain rescue for the main body of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition following the loss of its ship Endurance.
- April 27 – WWI: Gas attack at Hulluch in France: The 47th Brigade, 16th (Irish) Division is decimated in one of the most heavily concentrated German gas attacks of the war.
- April 29 – WWI: Siege of Kut ends with the surrender of British forces to the Ottoman Empire at Kut-al-Amara on the Tigris in Basra Vilayet during the Mesopotamian campaign.
- May 16
- May 31–June 1 – WWI: Battle of Jutland between the British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet and the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet in the North Sea, the war's only large-scale clash of battleships. The result is tactically inconclusive but British dominance of the North Sea is maintained.
- June 4 – WWI: The Brusilov Offensive, the height of Russian operations in the war, begins with their breaking through Austro-Hungarian lines.
- June 5 – WWI: The HMS Hampshire sinks having hit a mine off the Orkney Islands, Scotland, with Lord Kitchener aboard.
- June 5 – the Arab Revolt begins against the Ottoman Empire to create a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo to Aden, and is formally declared by Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca on June 10.
- June 15 – U.S. President Woodrow Wilson signs a bill incorporating the Boy Scouts of America.
- July 1–November 18 – WWI: Battle of the Somme, opening with explosion of the British Y Sap mine and the Battle of Albert: More than one million soldiers die, with 57,470 British Empire casualties on the first day, 19,240 of them killed, the British Army's bloodiest day. The immediate result is tactically inconclusive.
- July 1–12 – At least one shark attacks 5 swimmers along 80 miles (130 km) of New Jersey coastline during the Jersey Shore shark attacks of 1916, resulting in 4 deaths and the survival of one youth who requires limb amputation. This event is the inspiration for author Peter Benchley, over half a century later, to write Jaws.
- July 2 – Battle of Erzincan: Russian forces defeat troops of the Ottoman Empire in Armenia.
- July 15 – In Seattle, William Boeing incorporates Pacific Aero Products (later renamed Boeing).
- July 15–19 – WWI: During the Battle of Delville Wood 766 men from the South African Brigade are killed in South Africa's biggest loss during the First World War.
- July 19–20 – WWI: Battle of Fromelles: An attack by Australian and British troops is repulsed by the German army with heavy casualties.
- July 22 – In San Francisco, a bomb explodes on Market Street during a Preparedness Day parade, killing 10 injuring 40 (Warren Billings and Tom Mooney are later wrongly convicted of it).
- July 26 – WWI: East African Campaign – The German armed ship SMS Graf von Goetzen scuttles herself on Lake Tanganyika.
- July 29 – In Ontario, Canada, a lightning strike ignites a forest fire that destroys the towns of Cochrane and Matheson, killing 233.
- July 30 – German agents cause the Black Tom explosion in Jersey City, New Jersey, an act of sabotage destroying an ammunition depot and killing at least 7 people.
- c. August – Robert Baden-Powell publishes The Wolf Cub's Handbook in the U.K., establishing the basis of the junior section of the Scouting movement, the Wolf Cubs (modern-day Cub Scouts).
- August 3–5 – WWI: Sinai and Palestine Campaign: Battle of Romani: British Imperial troops secure victory over a joint Ottoman-German force.
- August 7 – WWI:
- August 9 – Lassen Volcanic National Park is established in California.
- August 15 – Foundation of Club Atlas.
- August 16 – Migratory Bird Treaty between Canada and the United States signed.
- August 21 – Peru declares neutrality.
- August 25 – U.S. President Woodrow Wilson signs legislation creating the National Park Service.
- August 27 – WWI: The Kingdom of Romania declares war on the Central Powers, entering the war on the side of the Allies.
- August 28 – WWI:
- Germany declares war on Romania.
- Italy declares war on Germany.
- August 29 – The United States passes the Philippine Autonomy Act.
- August 30 – The crew of the Endurance is rescued from Elephant Island.
- September 1 – Bulgaria declares war on Romania, going on to take Dobruja.
- September 2 – WWI: British pilot Leefe Robinson becomes the first to shoot down a German airship over Britain.
- September 4 – WWI: East African Campaign – Dar es Salaam surrenders to British Empire forces, securing them control of the Central Line of railway through German East Africa.
- September 5 – Release of D. W. Griffith's film Intolerance: Love's Struggle Through the Ages in the United States.
- September 11 – A mechanical failure causes the central span of the Quebec Bridge, a cantilever-type structure, to crash into the Saint Lawrence River for the second time, killing 13 workers.
- September 13 – Mary, a circus elephant, is hanged in the town of Erwin, Tennessee for killing her handler, Walter "Red" Eldridge.
- September 15–22 – WWI: Battle of Flers–Courcelette in France: British advance. The battle is significant for the first use of the tank in warfare; also for the debut of the Canadian and New Zealand Divisions in the Battle of the Somme.
- September 19 – WWI: East African Campaign – Belgian troops occupy Tabora in German East Africa.
- September 27 – Iyasu V of Ethiopia is deposed in a palace coup, in favour of his aunt Zewditu.
- October 7 – Georgia Tech and Cumberland College football game ends in a score of 222-0
- October 12 – Hipólito Yrigoyen is elected President of Argentina.
- October 14 – Perm State University is founded in Russia.
- October 16 – Margaret Sanger opens the first U.S. birth control clinic – a forerunner of Planned Parenthood.
- October 20 – Black Friday (1916), a violent and deadly storm on Lake Erie in the United States.
- October 21 – Friedrich Adler shoots Count Karl von Stürgkh, Minister-President of Austria.
- October 27 – Battle of Segale: Negus Mikael of Wollo, marching on the Ethiopian capital in support of his son Emperor Iyasu V, is defeated by Fitawrari Habte Giyorgis, securing the throne for Empress Zewditu.
- November 1
- November 5
- The Kingdom of Poland (1916–18) is proclaimed by a joint act of the emperors of Germany and Austria.
- Everett massacre: An armed confrontation in Everett, Washington, between local authorities and members of the Industrial Workers of the World results in seven deaths.
- Honan Chapel, Cork, Ireland, a product of the Irish Arts and Crafts movement (1894–1925), is dedicated.
- November 7
- U.S. presidential election, 1916: Democratic President Woodrow Wilson narrowly defeats Republican Charles E. Hughes.
- Republican Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes the first woman elected to the United States House of Representatives.
- Radio station 2XG, located in the Highbridge section of New York City, makes the first audio broadcast of presidential election returns.
- November 13 – Prime Minister of Australia Billy Hughes is expelled from the Labor Party over his support for conscription.
- November 18 – WWI: Battle of the Somme: In France, British Expeditionary Force commander Douglas Haig calls off the battle, which started on July 1.
- November 21
- Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria dies of pneumonia at the Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, aged 86, after a reign of 68 years and is succeeded by his grandnephew Charles I.
- WWI: Hospital ship HMHS Britannic, designed as the third Olympic-class ocean liner for White Star Line, sinks in the Kea Channel of the Aegean Sea after hitting a mine; 30 lives are lost. At 48,158 gross register tons, she is the largest ship lost during the war.
- November 22 – Writer Jack London dies of kidney failure at his California home aged 40.
- November 23 – WWI: Eastern Front – Bucharest, the capital of Romania, is occupied by troops of the Central Powers.
- December 12 – In the Dolomites, 100 avalanches bury 18,000 Austrian and Italian soldiers.
- December 16 – Robert Baden-Powell gives the first public display of the new Wolf Cub section of Scouting at Caxton Hall, Westminster.
- December 18 – WWI: The Battle of Verdun ends in France with German troops defeated.
- December 21 – WWI: El Arish occupied by the British Empire Desert Column during advance across the Sinai Peninsula.
- December 22 – The British Sopwith Camel aircraft makes its maiden flight. It is designed to counter the German Fokker aircraft.
- December 23 – WWI: The Desert Column captures the Ottoman garrison during the Battle of Magdhaba.
- December 30
- December 31 – The Hampton Terrace Hotel in North Augusta, South Carolina, one of the largest and most luxurious hotels in the United States at the time, burns to the ground.
- Food is rationed in Germany.
- Ferdinand de Saussure's Cours de linguistique générale is collected posthumously and published.
- Oxycodone, a narcotic painkiller closely related to codeine is first synthesized in Germany.
- Ernst Rüdin publishes his initial results on the genetics of schizophrenia.
- Louis Enricht claims he has a substitute for gasoline.
- Rodeo's first side-delivery bucking chute is designed and made by the Bascom boys (Raymond, Mel, Earl) and their father John W. Bascom at Welling, Alberta Canada.
- Gustav Holst composes The Planets, Opus 32.
- Bray Studios begins the Farmer Al Falfa series, the first of the Terrytoons.
- The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers is founded in the United States as the Society of Motion Picture Engineers.
- March 30 - National Hockey Association's Montreal Canadiens win their First Stanley Cup by defeating the Pacific Coast Hockey Association's Portland Rosebuds 3 games to 2. All Games were played at Montreal's Montreal Arena
- Due to the outbreak of World War I the 1916 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany, are cancelled.
- In the 1941 film Citizen Kane, Charles Foster Kane runs for New York governor and loses. Also in 1916, Emily Monroe Norton divorces him and, in either this year or in 1917, he marries Susan Alexander.
- January 3
- January 5 – Alfred Ryder, American film, radio and television actor (d. 1995)
- January 7 – Paul Keres, Estonian chess player (d. 1975)
- January 9 – Peter Twinn, English mathematician and WWII code-breaker (d. 2004)
- January 10 – Sune Bergström, Swedish biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004)
- January 12
- January 15 – Hugh Gibb, English drummer (d. 1992)
- January 17 – Peter Frelinghuysen Jr., American politician (d. 2011)
- January 18 – Silviu Brucan, Romanian author and politician (d. 2006)
- January 19 – Harry Huskey, American computer designer (d. 2017)
- January 22 – Henri Dutilleux, French composer (d. 2013)
- January 23 – David Douglas Duncan, American photojournalist
- January 24
- January 27 – Stjepan Filipović, a People's Hero of Yugoslavia (d.1942)
- January 28 – Dottie Hunter, Canadian baseball player (d. 2005)
- January 31 – Sangoulé Lamizana, 2nd President and Prime Minister of Burkina Faso (d. 2005)
- February 9 – Tex Hughson, American baseball player (d. 1993)
- February 10 – Louis Guttman, American-born Israeli university professor (d. 1987)
- February 11 – Ivan Hristov Bashev, Bulgarian Foreign Minister (d. 1971)
- February 12
- February 13 – John Reed, British actor and opera singer (d. 2010)
- February 14
- February 15
- February 16 – Karel Dufek, Czechoslovak diplomat (d. 2009)
- February 18 – Maria Altmann, Austrian Holocaust survivor and heiress (d. 2011)
- February 20 – Jean Erdman, American dancer
- February 23 – Retta Scott, first woman to receive screen credit as an animator at the Walt Disney Animation Studios (d. 1990)
- February 26
- February 28
- February 29 – Dinah Shore, American singer (d. 1994)
- March 1 – Emelyn Whiton, American Olympic sailor (d. 1962)
- March 2 – George E. Bria, Italian-American journalist (d. 2017)
- March 3 – Paul Halmos, Hungarian-born mathematician (d. 2006)
- March 4
- March 5 – Jack Hamm, American cartoonist (d. 1996)
- March 01 – Ethel Bush, British police officer (d. 2016)
- March 11 – Harold Wilson, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1995)
- March 13
- March 14 – Horton Foote, American writer (d. 2009)
- March 15
- March 16
- March 17
- March 19 – Irving Wallace, American novelist (d. 1990)
- March 20 – Pierre Messmer, French politician (d. 2007)
- March 24 – Donald Hamilton, Swedish-born writer (d. 2006)
- March 26
- March 29
- March 31 – Lucille Bliss, American voice actor (d. 2012)
- April 2 – Menachem Porush, member of Israeli Knesset for Agudat Yisrael (d. 2010)
- April 3
- April 4 – Nikola Ljubičić, 10th President of Serbia (d. 2005)
- April 5
- April 10 – Lee Jung-seob, Korean oil painter (d. 1956)
- April 11 – Alberto Ginastera, Argentine composer (d. 1983)
- April 12
- April 13 – Phyllis Fraser, American actor and publisher (d. 2006)
- April 14 – Pehr Victor Edman, Swedish chemist (d.1977)
- April 15
- April 17
- April 18 – José Joaquín Trejos Fernández, President of Costa Rica (d. 2010)
- April 22 – Yehudi Menuhin, American-born violinist (d. 1999)
- April 24
- April 25 – R. J. Rushdoony, American founder of Christian Reconstructionism (d. 2001)
- April 26
- April 28 – Ferruccio Lamborghini, Italian automobile manufacturer (d. 1993)
- April 29 – Ramón Amaya Amador, Honduran author (d.1966)
- April 30
- May 1 – Glenn Ford, Canadian actor (d. 2006)
- May 4 – Jane Jacobs, née Butzner, American-born urban activist (d. 2006)
- May 5 – Zail Singh, Indian politician and 7th President of India (d. 1994)
- May 6
- May 8
- May 10 – Milton Babbitt, American composer (d. 2011)
- May 11 – Camilo José Cela, Spanish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2002)
- May 14 – Sammy Luftspring, Canadian boxer (d. 2000)
- May 15
- May 16 – Ephraim Katzir, 4th President of Israel (d. 2009)
- May 17
- May 18 – Miriam Goldberg, American newspaper publisher (d. 2017)
- May 20
- May 21
- May 26
- May 31
- June 3 – Jack Manning, American film, stage and television actor (d. 2009)
- June 4 – Robert F. Furchgott, American chemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2009)
- June 5 – Eddie Joost, baseball player and manager (d. 2011)
- June 6 – Hamani Diori, former President of Niger (d. 1989)
- June 8 – Francis Crick, English molecular biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004)
- June 9
- June 12 – Raúl Héctor Castro, American politician (d. 2015)
- June 14 – Dorothy McGuire, American actress (d. 2001)
- June 15
- June 16 – Phil Chambers, American actor (d. 1993)
- June 17 – Einar Englund, Finnish composer (d. 1999)
- June 18 – Julio César Turbay Ayala, Colombian politician (d. 2005)
- June 21 – Tchan Fou-li, Chinese photographer
- June 22
- June 23
- June 24
- June 25 – Thomas Reddin, American police (d. 2004)
- June 26
- June 27 – Max Müller, Swiss cross-country skier
- June 28 – John Evelyn Anderson, British Army officer (d. 2007)
- June 29 – Ruth Warrick, American actress (d. 2005)
- July 1
- July 2
- Mary Harrow and Martha Averett, American supercentenarians
- Reino Kangasmäki, Finnish wrestler (d. 2010)
- Alec Hill, Australian military historian (d. 2008)
- Zélia Gattai, Brazilian author and photographer (d. 2008)
- Hans-Ulrich Rudel, German pilot (d. 1982)
- Ken Curtis, American motion picture and television actor and singer (d. 1991)
- July 3 – John Kundla, American basketball coach (d. 2017)
- July 4
- July 5
- July 6
- July 7
- July 8
- July 9 – Edward Heath, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 2005)
- July 10 – Nicholas D'Antonio Salza, American bishop (d. 2009)
- July 11
- July 14 – Natalia Ginzburg, Italian author (d. 1991)
- July 15
- July 16 – Victor Fontana, Brazilian engineer, businessman and politician
- July 17
- July 18
- July 19 – Phil Cavarretta, baseball player (d. 2010)
- July 20
- July 21
- July 22
- July 23 – Sandra Gould, American actress (d. 1999)
- July 25 – Fred Lasswell, American cartoonist (d. 2001)
- July 27 – Elizabeth Hardwick, American literary critic and novelist (d. 2007)
- July 28 – David Brown, American producer (d. 2010)
- July 30 – Dick Wilson, American actor (d. 2007)
- July 31
- August 1 – Fiorenzo Angelini, Italian Cardinal (d. 2014)
- August 5 – Kermit Love, American puppeteer (d. 2008)
- August 6 – Dom Mintoff, Prime Minister of Malta (d. 2012)
- August 9 – Manea Mănescu, 50th Prime Minister of Romania (d. 2009)
- August 10 – Lorna McDonald, Australian historian and author (d. 2017)
- August 14 – Ralph de Toledano, American conservationist and author (d. 2007)
- August 16 – Iggy Katona, American race car driver (d. 2003)
- August 18 – Neagu Djuvara, Romanian historian, essayist, and diplomat
- August 20
- August 21
- August 24 – Hal Smith, American actor (d. 1994)
- August 25
- August 27
- August 28 – Jack Vance, American writer (d. 2013)
- August 29 – Luther Davis, American screenwriter (d. 2008)
- August 30 – Shag Crawford, American baseball umpire (d. 2007)
- August 31
- September 1
- September 3 – Tommy J. Smith, Australian trainer (d. 1998)
- September 5 – Allan Louisy, 2nd Prime Minister of Saint Lucia (d. 2011)
- September 12
- September 13 – Roald Dahl, Welsh-born author (d. 1990)
- September 14
- September 15
- September 16 – Frank Leslie Walcott, Barbadian labour leader (d. 1999)
- September 17 – Mary Stewart, born Mary Rainbow, English-born fantasy and mystery writer (d. 2014)
- September 18 – John Jacob Rhodes, American politician and lawyer (d. 2003)
- September 21 – Zinovy Gerdt, Russian actor (d. 1996)
- September 23 – Aldo Moro, Prime Minister of Italy (d. 1978)
- September 24 – Ruth Leach Amonette, American businesswoman (d. 2004)
- September 27
- September 28 – Peter Finch, English-born Australian actor (d. 1977)
- October 3
- October 4 – Vitaly Ginzburg, Russian physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 2009)
- October 9 – Robert Brubaker, American actor (d. 2010)
- October 10 – Bernard Heuvelmans, Belgian-French cryptozoologist (d. 2001)
- October 11 – Maurice Gaffney, Irish barrister (d. 2016)
- October 12 – Alice Childress, American actress, playwright, and novelist (d. 1994)
- October 14 – C. Everett Koop, United States Surgeon General (d. 2013)
- October 15 – Hassan Gouled Aptidon, President of Djibouti (d. 2006)
- October 19
- October 21 – Eddie Carnett, American baseball player (d. 2016)
- October 26 – François Mitterrand, President of France (d. 1996)
- October 30 – Leon Day, American baseball player (d. 1995)
- October 31 – Carl Johan Bernadotte, Prince of Sweden (d. 2012)
- November 4 – Walter Cronkite, American television journalist (d. 2009)
- November 5 – Jim Tabor, American baseball player (d. 1953)
- November 6 – Harry Blamires, British Anglican theologian, literary critic and novelist (d. 2017)
- November 8 – Lady Ursula d'Abo, English socialite (d. 2017)
- November 10 – Louis le Brocquy, Irish painter (d. 2012)
- November 11 – Robert Carr, English politician (d. 2012)
- November 12 – Rogelio de la Rosa, Filipino actor and politician (d. 1986)
- November 14 – Sherwood Schwartz, American television writer and producer (d. 2011)
- November 15 – Bill Melendez, American animator (d. 2008)
- November 16 – Daws Butler, American voice actor (d. 1988)
- November 17 – Shelby Foote, American historian and novelist, author of The Civil War: A Narrative (d. 2005)
- November 23
- November 24 – Forrest J Ackerman, American writer (d. 2008)
- November 25 – Cosmo Haskard, Irish-born former British colonial administrator and retired British Army officer (d. 2017)
- November 26 – Gerhard Unger, German tenor (d. 2011)
- November 27 – Chick Hearn, American basketball announcer (d. 2002)
- November 28
- November 29 – Fran Ryan, American actress (d. 2000)
- November 30 – John C. Harkness, American architect (d. 2016)
- December 1 – Wan Li, Chinese government official (d. 2015)
- December 5 – Hilary Koprowski, Polish virologist and immunologist (d. 2013)
- December 6 – Kristján Eldjárn, 3rd President of Iceland (d. 1982)
- December 7
- December 8
- December 9
- December 11 – Dámaso Pérez Prado, Cuban musician (d. 1989)
- December 14 – Shirley Jackson, American writer (d. 1965)
- December 15 – Maurice Wilkins, New Zealand-born physicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004)
- December 16 – Birgitta Valberg, Swedish actress (d. 2014)
- December 18
- December 19
- December 24
- December 25
- December 27 – Cathy Lewis, American actress (d. 1968)
- January 2 – Felix Sarda y Salvany, Spanish Roman Catholic priest, writer and saint (b. 1844)
- January 5 – Ulpiano Checa, Spanish painter, sculptor and illustrator (b. 1860)
- January 8 – Rembrandt Bugatti, Italian sculptor (b. 1884)
- January 9 – Ada Rehan, Irish-American Shakespearean actress (b. 1859)
- January 11 – Takashima Tomonosuke, Japanese general (b. 1844)
- January 13 – Victoriano Huerta, Mexican general and statesman, 35th President of Mexico (b. 1854)
- January 17 – Arthur V. Johnson, American actor and director (b. 1876)
- February 6 – Rubén Darío, Nicaraguan writer (b. 1867)
- February 12 – Richard Dedekind, German mathematician (b. 1831)
- February 13 – Vilhelm Hammershøi, Danish painter (b. 1864)
- February 18 – Hans Schmidt, German Roman Catholic priest (executed) (b. 1881)
- February 19 – Ernst Mach, Austrian physicist and philosopher (b. 1838)
- February 20 – Klas Pontus Arnoldson, Swedish writer and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1844)
- February 23 – Hugo von Pohl, German admiral (b. 1855)
- February 25 – David Bowman, Australian politician (b. 1860)
- February 28 – Henry James, American writer (b. 1843)
- March 4 – Franz Marc, German Expressionist painter (killed in battle) (b. 1880)
- March 11
- March 20 – Ota Benga, Congolese pygmy brought to America as part of an exhibition at the Bronx zoo (b. ca. 1883)
- March 24 – Enrique Granados, Spanish composer (ship sinking) (b. 1867)
- March 25 – Ishi, last known member of the Yana people (b. ca. 1860)
- April 11 – Richard Harding Davis, American journalist and author (b. 1864)
- April 19 – Ephraim Shay, American inventor (b. 1839)
- April 21 – John Surratt, suspected of involvement in the Abraham Lincoln assassination, son of Mary Surratt (b. 1844)
- April 27 – Prince Leopold Clement of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (b. 1878)
- May 1 – Lydia Zvereva, first Russian woman to earn a pilot's license (b. 1890)
- May 3 – Padraig Pearse, Irish nationalist (executed) (b. 1879)
- May 11
- May 12 – James Connolly, Irish socialist (executed) (b. 1868)
- May 13 – Sholem Aleichem, Ukrainian Yiddish writer (b. 1859)
- May 19 – Georges Boillot, French Grand Prix driver (killed in battle) (b. 1884)
- May 21 – Artúr Görgei, Hungarian military general and politician (b. 1818)
- May 27 – Joseph Gallieni, French general (b. 1849)
- May 31 – Horace Hood, British admiral (killed in action) (b. 1870)
- June 5 – Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, British field marshal and statesman (drowned) (b. 1850)
- June 6 – Yuan Shikai, Chinese military official and politician, president of the Republic (b. 1859)
- June 7 – Émile Faguet, French writer and critic (b. 1847)
- June 9 – Richard C. Saufley, American naval aviation pioneer (b. 1884)
- June 12 – Silvanus P. Thompson, English professor of physics, electrical engineer, member of the Royal Society and author (b. 1851)
- June 18
- June 24 – Victor Chapman, French-American fighter pilot (killed in action) (b. 1890)
- June 25 – Thomas Eakins, American realist painter (b. 1844)
- June 29 – Georges Lacombe, French painter (b. 1868)
- July 6 – Odilon Redon, French painter (b. 1840)
- July 15 – Élie Metchnikoff, Russian microbiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1845)
- July 20 – Reinhard Sorge, German dramatist and poet (killed in battle) (b. 1892)
- July 22 – James Whitcomb Riley, American poet (b. 1849)
- July 23 – Sir William Ramsay, British chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1852)
- July 27 – Charles Fryatt, British mariner (executed) (b. 1872)
- July 29 – Claude Charles Castleton, Australian VC recipient (killed in battle) (b. 1893)
- August 3 – Roger Casement, Irish nationalist (executed) (b. 1864)
- August 5 – George Butterworth, English composer (b. 1885)
- August 8 – Kamimura Hikonojō, Japanese admiral (b. 1849)
- August 17 – Umberto Boccioni, Italian painter and sculptor (b. 1882)
- August 31 – Martha McClellan Brown, American activist (b. 1838)
- September 8 – Friedrich Baumfelder, German composer, conductor, and pianist (b. 1836)
- September 14 – José Echegaray, Spanish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1832)
- October 10 – Antonio Sant'Elia, Italian architect (killed in battle) (b. 1888)
- October 11 – King Otto of Bavaria (b. 1848)
- October 12 – Tony Jannus, American aviator and aircraft designer (b. 1889)
- October 18 – Ignacio Pinazo, Spanish painter (b. 1849)
- October 21 – Karl von Stürgkh, Prime Minister of Austria (b. 1859)
- October 25 – Gérard Encausse, Papus, French occultist (b. 1865)
- October 28
- October 29 – John Sebastian Little, American politician and congressman (b. 1851)
- October 31 – Charles Taze Russell, Protestant evangelist, forerunner of Jehovah's Witnesses (b. 1852)
- November 1 – Prince Franz Anton von Thun und Hohenstein, Austrian noble and statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1847)
- November 2 – Prince Mircea of Romania (b. 1913)
- November 9 – Ion Dragalina, Romanian general (killed in battle) (b. 1860)
- November 10 – Walter Sutton, geneticist and physician (b. 1877)
- November 12 – Percival Lowell, American astronomer (b. 1855)
- November 14
- November 15 – Henryk Sienkiewicz, Polish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1846)
- November 21 – Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria (b. 1830)
- November 22 – Jack London, American author (b. 1876)
- November 23 – Lanoe Hawker VC, British World War I fighter ace, killed in action by Manfred von Richthofen (b. 1890)
- November 24 – Hiram Stevens Maxim, American firearms inventor (b. 1840)
- November 27 – Emile Verhaeren, Belgian poet (b. 1855)
- November 28 – Martinus Theunis Steyn, Boer lawyer, politician, and statesman, sixth and last President of the Orange Free State (1896-1902) (b. 1857)
- December 5 – Hans Richter, Austrian–Hungarian conductor (b. 1843)
- December 8 – John Porter Merrell, American admiral (b. 1846)
- December 9 – Natsume Sōseki, Japanese writer (b. 1867)
- December 10 – Ōyama Iwao, Japanese field marshal and a founder of the Imperial Japanese Army (b. 1842)
- December 16
- December 25 – Albert Chmielowski, Polish Catholic saint (b. 1845)
- December 28 – Eduard Strauss, Austrian composer (b. 1835)
- December 30 (December 17 OS) – Grigori Rasputin, Russian mystic (killed) (b. 1869)